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Mishnayos Shabbos Perek 1 Mishnah 3

שבת פרק א׳ משנה ג׳


This mishna deals with various decrees, especially with regard to the halakhot of Shabbat, which were issued in order to distance a person from transgressions that he is liable to commit through habit and routine. The mishna said: The tailor may not go out with his needle adjacent to nightfall on Shabbat eve, lest he forget that he is carrying the needle and go out with it to the public domain even after Shabbat begins. And, similarly, the scribe [lavlar] may not go out with his quill[kulmos] for the same reason. And one may not shake his clothes on Shabbat to rid them of lice; and one may not read a book by candlelight, so that he will not come to adjust the wick of the lamp. However, in truth they said an established halakha: The attendant sees where in the book the children under his supervision are reading in the Torah, even by candlelight on Shabbat. However, he himself may not read. Similarly, the Sages issued a similar decree with regard to other halakhot, as they said: The zav may not eat even with his wife the zava, despite the fact that they are both ritually impure, because, by eating together, they will come to excessive intimacy and become accustomed to sin.

לֹא יֵצֵא הַחַיָּט בְּמַחְטוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֵצֵא. וְלֹא הַלַּבְלָר בְּקֻלְמוֹסוֹ. וְלֹא יְפַלֶּה אֶת כֵּלָיו, וְלֹא יִקְרָא לְאוֹר הַנֵּר. בֶּאֱמֶת אָמְרוּ, הַחַזָּן רוֹאֶה הֵיכָן תִּינוֹקוֹת קוֹרְאִים, אֲבָל הוּא לֹא יִקְרָא. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, לֹא יֹאכַל הַזָּב עִם הַזָּבָה, מִפְּנֵי הֶרְגֵּל עֲבֵרָה:


לא יצא חייט במחטו – even if it is inserted in his clothing, lest he forget and go out, and for an artisan, it is the manner of his craft, he liable for it is way of artisans to insert them in their clothing when they go out to the market.

שמא ישכח ויצא – when it gets dark.

הלבלר – the scribe.

בקולמוסו – which is inserted at the back of their ears like the manner of scribes.

ולא יפלה את כליו – to remove vermin from his clothing. The Aramaic translation/Targum of “I have cleared out the consecrated portion” (Deuteronomy 26:13) “I searched my garment for vermin.”

ולא יקרא לאור הנר – in a book, lest he tilt the candle to bring the oil in front of the lick in order that it will kindle well and is found that he is starting a fire on Shabbat, and even if the candle was the height of two or three men, it is always forbidden to read by the light of a candle unless there is another person with him to watch him, or if he is an important individual who is never accustomed to fix the candle.

החזן – one who teaches young children.

מהיכן התינוקות קורין – from where should they begin to read, for with a bit of investigation such as this, we do not make a decree lest he tilt it, and the young children read before their teacher by the light of the candle since their fear of their teacher is upon them.

אבל הוא לא יקרא – the entire portion, because his fear of them is not upon him, and their guarding is not considered guarding, and for this reason also, there is an opinion that a woman who guards for her husband, her guarding is not [considered] guarding, for fear of her is not upon him.

כיוצא בו – to make a distance from transgression, they said that a person with a flux should not eat with his wife who has a flux, and even though both of them are ritually impure.

מפני הרגל עבירה – for since they engaged in sexual intercourse, he will go to engage in sex with a woman with a flux which is punishable by extirpation, and the man with a flux and a woman with a flux are taken as something remarkable, for sexual relations is hard for them, and it is possible to say that they definitely will not lead to transgression, and even so, they should not eat one with the other.

לא יצא החייט במחטו. אפילו תחובה לו בבגדו, שמא ישכח ויצא, ואומן דרך אומנתו חייב שדרך האומנים לתוחבן בבגדיו כשיוצאים לשוק:

שמא ישכח ויצא. משתחשך:

הלבלר. הסופר:

בקולמוסו. התחוב אחורי אזניו כדרך הסופרים:

ולא יפלה את כליו. מבער כנים מבגדיו. תרגום בערתי הקדש פליתי:

ולא יקרא לאור הנר. בספר, שמא יטה הנר להביא השמן לפי הפתילה כדי שידלוק יפה ונמצא מבעיר בשבת, ואפילו היה הנר גבוה שתים ושלש קומות, לעולם אסור לקרות לאור הנר אלא אם כן יש עמו אדם אחר לשמרו, או אם הוא אדם חשוב שאינו רגיל לעולם לתקן הנר:

החזן. מלמד תינוקות:

מהיכן התינוקות קורין. מהיכן יתחילו לקרות, דבעיון מועט כי האי לא גזרינן שמא יטה. והתינוקות קוראין לפני רבן לאור הנר, שאימת רבן עליהם:

אבל הוא לא יקרא. כל הפרשה, מפני שאין אימתן עליו, ושמירתן לא הויא שמירה. ומהאי טעמא נמי איכא למאן דאמר דאשה שומרת לבעלה אין שמירתה שמירה, שאין אימתה עליו:

כיוצא בו. לעשות הרחקה מן העבירה, אמרו לא יאכל הזב עם אשתו זבה, ואף על פי ששניהם טמאים:

מפני הרגל עבירה. שמתוך שהם מתיחדים יבא לבעול זבה שהיא בכרת. וזב וזבה לרבותא נקט שהתשמיש קשה להן ואיכא למימר דודאי לא יבואו לידי הרגל עבירה, אפ״ה לא יאכלו זה עם זו: