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Today's Mishnah Yomi

Kiddushin 1:6 - 1:7

The Mishnah Yomi for Thursday, July 18, 2024 is Kiddushin 1:6 - 1:7

Mishnah 1

Mishnayos Kiddushin Perek 1 Mishnah 6

קידושין פרק א׳ משנה ו׳

6

The mishna discusses a transaction involving the barter of two items. With regard to all items used as monetary value for another item, i.e., instead of a buyer paying money to the seller, they exchange items of value with each other, once one party in the transaction acquires the item he is receiving, this party is obligated with regard to the item being exchanged for it. Therefore, if it is destroyed or lost, he incurs the loss. How so? If one exchanges an ox for a cow, or a donkey for an ox, once this party acquires the animal that he is receiving, this party is obligated with regard to the item being exchanged for it. The authority of the Temple treasury effects acquisition by means of money to the seller. And the authority, i.e., the mode of acquisition, of a commoner [hedyot] is by possession. Furthermore, one’s declaration to the Most High, i.e., when one consecrates an item through speech, is equivalent to transferring an item to a common person, and the item is acquired by the Temple treasury through his mere speech.

כָּל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה דָמִים בְּאַחֵר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה זֶה, נִתְחַיֵּב זֶה בַחֲלִיפָיו. כֵּיצַד. הֶחֱלִיף שׁוֹר בְּפָרָה אוֹ חֲמוֹר בְּשׁוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁזָּכָה זֶה, נִתְחַיֵּב זֶה בַחֲלִיפָיו. רְשׁוּת הַגָּבוֹהַּ, בְּכֶסֶף, וּרְשׁוּת הַהֶדְיוֹט, בַּחֲזָקָה. אֲמִירָתוֹ לַגָּבוֹהַּ, כִּמְסִירָתוֹ לַהֶדְיוֹט:

ו׳
Bartenura

כל הנעשה דמים באחר – The Gemara explains (Kiddushin 28a-b): whatever is assessed as an equivalent (i.e., an exchange is meant and not a sale for cash), [for] anything – if one comes to give him money for another thing, must assess its value, that is, all the movables except for coins.

כיון שזכה זה – that is to say, once the first [person] pulls, the second is obligated for an exchange (I.e., a form of possession by handing to the purchaser an object as a symbolical substitute), in every place that they are, and if they died or lost it, and even though he had not pulled, since through the pulling by the seller of the scarf or the object, the object is acquired by the purchaser in whatever place he is in. And even though the object that they are purchasing is not worth at least a penny, and as long as it is not a coin or produce, with these – we do not acquire through them. And all things are acquired by exchange – movables, slaves and property, except for coinage which is not acquired through exchange, since the minds of people are [focused] on the form of the coin and not on its substance. For its form is likely to become nullified. Therefore, if a person purchased a coin without weight or without number, and said: “these are in exchange for a certain field,” or a certain slave, or a certain object, since this one pulled it, the other is liable in its exchange, for he has revealed his thought that he is not strict about its form since he didn’t weigh it or count it. For there is no way that the acquisition of the coin will take effect where it is lacking in his eyes, other than to acquire it along with land.

רשות הגבוה בכסף – the treasurer who gave monies for the animal for the needs of the Temple treasury, even if it is at the end of the world, he has acquired it. But regarding a commoner who cannot acquire other than through claim based upon undisturbed possession, that is until he pulls it. And if the commoner gave money for the object, as long as he didn’t pull the object, he did not acquire it, and the seller can return the monies if he retracts from the sale of the object, and he accepts upon himself [the curse] of “he who punished” ( see Mishnah Bava Metzia, Chapter 4, Mishnah 2) (for not standing by his word). But if the purchaser pulled the object, even though he had not given the monies that he had stipulated, neither party of them can retract. And if he did not give the monies and did not pull the object, but rather, were pardoned on the sale in the presence of witnesses and he (i.e., the purchaser) was reconciled that her would purchase it for such-and-such an amount, and his fellow was reconciled to sell it for such-and-such an amount, even if he said: “you are my witnesses,” there is nothing in those words, and even [the curse] “he who punished” (for not standing by his word) is not here.

אמירתו לגבוה כמסירתו להדיוט – He who says: “This bull is for a burnt-offering” or “this house is devoted to the Temple treasury, even if it is at the end of the world, he has acquired it. And the common person does not acquire until he pulls the animal’ and takes hold of the house.

כל הנעשה דמים באחר. מפרש בגמרא כל הנישום דמים באחר, כל דבר שאם בא לתתו דמים באחר צריך לשומו, דהיינו כל מטלטלין בר ממטבע:

כיון שזכה זה. כלומר כיון שמשך האחד נתחייב האחר בחליפין בכ״מ שהם, אם מתו או אבדו ואע״פ שלא משך, לפי שבמשיכת המוכר את הסודר או את החפץ, נקנה המקח ללוקח בכ״מ שהוא. ואע״פ שאין בחפץ שקונים בו שוה פרוטה. ובלבד שלא יהיה מטבע או פירות, שאלו אין קונין בהם. וכל הדברים נקנים בחליפין, מטלטלין עבדים וקרקעות. חוץ מהמטבע שאינו נקנה בחליפין, משום דדעתיה דאינש אצורתא דמטבע לא על גופיה, וצורתא עבידא דבטלה. לפיכך אם לקח אדם מטבע בלא משקל ובלא מנין, ואמר אלו חלופי שדה פלונית, או עבד פלוני, או חפץ פלוני, כיון שמשך זה, נתחייב האחר בחליפיו, דהא גלי דעתיה דלאו אצורתא קפיד הואיל ולא שקל ולא מנה. ואין שום דרך שיועיל בקניית המטבע היכא דליתיה בעיניה, אלא להקנותו אגב קרקע:

רשות הגבוה בכסף. גזבר שנתן מעות בבהמה לצורך הקדש, אפילו היא בסוף העולם, קנה. ובהדיוט לא קנה אלא בחזקה, כלומר עד שימשוך. ואם נתן ההדיוט דמים על החפץ, כל זמן שלא משך החפץ לא קנה, ומחזיר המוכר את הדמים אם חוזר בו ממכירת החפץ, וצריך לקבל עליו מי שפרע. אבל אם משך הלוקח החפץ, אע״פ שעדיין לא נתן הדמים שהתנה, אין שום אחד מהם יכול לחזור בו. ואם לא נתן דמים ולא משך החפץ, אלא שנתפשרו על המקח בפני עדים ונתרצה זה שיקנה בכך וכך, ונתרצה חבירו למכור בכך ובכך, אפילו אמר אתם עדי אין באלה הדברים כלום, ואפילו מי שפרע אין כאן:

אמירתו לגבוה כמסירתו להדיוט. האומר שור זה עולה, בית זה הקדש, אפילו בסוף העולם, קנה. ובהדיוט לא קנה עד שימשוך בבהמה, ויחזיק בבית:

Mishnah 2

Mishnayos Kiddushin Perek 1 Mishnah 7

קידושין פרק א׳ משנה ז׳

7

With regard to all mitzvot of a son with regard to his father, men are obligated to perform them and women are exempt. And with regard to all mitzvot of a father with regard to his son, both men and women are obligated to perform them. The mishna notes an additional difference between the obligations of men and women in the performance of mitzvot: With regard to all positive, time-bound mitzvot, i.e., those which must be performed at specific times, men are obligated to perform them and women are exempt. And with regard to all positive mitzvot that are not time bound, both men and women are obligated to perform them. And with regard to all prohibitions, whether they are time-bound or whether they are not time-bound, both men and women are obligated to observe them, except for the prohibitions of: Do not round the corners of your head, and: Do not destroy the corners of your beard, which are derived from the verse: “You shall not round the corners of your head and you shall not destroy the corners of your beard” (Leviticus 19:27), and a prohibition that concerns only priests: Do not contract ritual impurity from a corpse (see Leviticus 21:1). These mitzvot apply only to men, not women, despite the fact that they are prohibitions.

כָּל מִצְוֹת הַבֵּן עַל הָאָב, אֲנָשִׁים חַיָּבִין וְנָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת. וְכָל מִצְוֹת הָאָב עַל הַבֵּן, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין. וְכָל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֲנָשִׁים חַיָּבִין וְנָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת. וְכָל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין. וְכָל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, בֵּין שֶׁהַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים חַיָּבִין, חוּץ מִבַּל תַּשְׁחִית וּבַל תַּקִּיף וּבַל תִּטַּמָּא לְמֵתִים:

ז׳
Bartenura

כל מצות הבן על האב – All commandments of the son which lie upon the father to do for his son. And they are six things: to circumcise him, to redeem him if he is a first-born, to teach him Torah, to teach him a trade/craft, to marry him off to a woman and to have his son taught swimming (Kiddushin 30b).

אנשים חייבים – The father is obligated in these commandments regarding his son, but the mother is exempt.

וכל מצות הבן – that lie upon the son to do for his father, which are fear and honor: fear – he should not sit in his place nor contradict his words, nor tip the scales against him; honor: feeds him and provides him drink, dresses and covers him, brings him in and takes him out.

אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חייבים – [both] daughters and sons are obligated [for this].

וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמה – that the time carried with it for the commandment that would come, such as Shofar, Sukkah, Lulav and Tzizit (ritual fringes)

שלא הזמן גרמה – such as Mezuzah, making a railing around the house (Deuteronomy 22:8), a lost object, and sending forth the mother-bird. And these two general principles are not exact/specific: As we hold: we don’t learn from general principles, even in a place where it says regarding them, “except for.” For the [eating of] Matzah on the night of Passover, rejoicing on the festivals and Hakhel (gathering together in Jerusalem – see Deuteronomy 31:12 on the holiday of Sukkot), they are all positive time-bound commandments but women are obligated [in them]. But the [commandments of] Torah study, being fruitful and multiplying, and the redemption of the [first-born] son, which are positive commandments which are not time-bound, and women are exempt [from them]. But the final principle of “all negative commandments, both men and women are obligated, except for [the commandments of] “you shall not round off [the side-growth on your head]” (Leviticus 19:27), nor “destroy the side-growth of your beard” (ibid.,) nor defile yourself to the dead (Leviticus 21:1). This general principle is exact, and we derive it as it is written (Numbers 5:6): “[Speak to the Israelites:] When a man or a woman commits any wrong towards a fellow man…” The Bible compares a woman to a man in all the punishments that are in the Torah.

חוץ מבל תקיף ובל תשחית – As it is written (Leviticus 19:27): “You shall not round off the side-growth on your head or destroy the side-growth of your beard.” That which is [forbidden] in destruction, it is [forbidden] in rounding-off. And these women, since they are not [involved] in destruction [of the side-growths of the beard] are also not [involved] in “rounding off” [the side-growth on your head]. And from where do we learn that they are not [commanded] in “destroying” [the side growth of the beard]? As it is written, “the side-growth of your beard.” And it is not written, “the side-growth of your beards.” What is “your beard?” Your beard, but not the beard of your wife.

ובל תטמא למתים – as it is written (Leviticus 21:1): “The LORD said to Moses:] Speak to the priests, the sons of Aaron….” [which means] the sons of Aaron, but not the daughters of Aaron.

כל מצות הבן על האב. כל מצות הבן המוטלות על האב לעשות לבנו. והן ששה דברים, למולו, לפדותו אם הוא בכור, ללמדו תורה, ללמדו אומנות, להשיאו אשה, להשיטו בנהר:

אנשים חייבים. האב חייב במצות הללו לבנו, והאם פטורה:

וכל מצות האב. המוטלות על הבן לעשות לאביו, שהם מורא וכבוד. מורא, לא ישב במקומו, ולא יסתור את דבריו, ולא יכריע את דבריו. כבוד, מאכיל ומשקה. מלביש ומכסה. מכניס ומוציא:

אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חייבים. הבנים והבנות חייבים:

וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמה. שהזמן גרם למצוה שתבא, כגון שופר, סוכה, לולב, וציצית:

שלא הזמן גרמה. כגון מזוזה, מעקה, אבדה, ושלוח הקן. והני תרי כללי לאו דוקא, כדקיי״ל אין למדין מן הכללות אפילו במקום שנאמר בהם חוץ, שהרי מצה בליל הפסח, ושמחה במועדים, והקהל בחג הסוכות, כולן מ״ע שהזמן גרמה הן ונשים חייבות. ות״ת, ופריה ורביה, ופדיון הבן, ממ״ע שלא הזמן גרמה הן ונשים פטורות. אבל כללא בתרא דכל מצות לא תעשה אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חייבים. חוץ מבל תקיף ובל תשחית ובל תטמא למתים, כללא דוקא הוא, וילפינן ליה מדכתיב במדבר ה׳) איש או אשה כי יעשו מכל חטאת האדם, השוה הכתוב אשה לאיש לכל עונשין שבתורה:

חוץ מבל תקיף ובל תשחית. דכתיב (ויקרא י״ט) לא תקיפו פאת ראשכם, ולא תשחית את סאת זקנך. כל שישנו בהשחתה ישנו בהקפה, וכל שאינו בהשחתה אינו בהקפה. והני נשי הואיל וליתנהו בהשחתה ליתנהו בהקפה. ומנלן דליתנהו בהשחתה, דכתיב פאת זקנך, ולא כתיב פאת זקנכם, מאי זקנך, זקנך ולא זקן אשתך:

ובל תטמא למתים. דכתיב (שם כ״א) אמור אל הכהנים בני אהרן, בני אהרן ולא בנות אהרן:

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