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Mishnayos Pesachim Perek 2 Mishnah 4

פסחים פרק ב׳ משנה ד׳


If one unwittingly eats teruma of leavened bread on Passover, not realizing that the food was teruma, then he must pay the principal and an additional fifth. This is because one who unwittingly eats teruma must compensate the priest for the value of the teruma and add a fifth of the value, even though the teruma is considered to be valueless on Passover. If he intentionally ate the teruma then he is exempt from payment; as he is liable to receive the severe punishment of karet, he is therefore exempt from the lesser punishment of payment. If he ate impure teruma in this manner then he is not even required to pay its monetary value in wood, for one who derives benefit from impure teruma calculates its value by treating it as though it were fuel for burning. While impure teruma can be used in this manner during the rest of the year, one may not derive any benefit from leavened bread on Passover, and therefore such teruma is worthless.

הָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמַת חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּשׁוֹגֵג, מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ. בְּמֵזִיד, פָּטוּר מִתַּשְׁלוּמִים וּמִדְּמֵי עֵצִים:


בשוגג – he erred inadvertently regarding Terumah/priest’s due even as he erred wittingly regarding leavened products.

משלם קרן וחומש – and even though it is forbidden to derive benefit from leavened products on Passover, and is not worth anything, because that when one eats priest’s due inadvertently, it is written (Leviticus 22:14): “[but if a man eats of a sacred donation unwittingly,] he shall pay the priest for the sacred donation, [adding one-fifth of its value],” something that is worthy of being holy, and he does not pay him money, but rather produce, and the payment becomes priest’s due, therefore, we do not follow after the money.

במזיד – that he wittingly [ate] priest’s due, even if he erred inadvertently regarding leavened products, he is exempt from payment.

ומדמי עצים – if the priest’s due was ritually impure, he does not pay the cost of wood that would have been appropriate to burn underneath his dish, for [when one eats] priest’s due wittingly, he is not other than a mere thief, and he pays money according to the value and not according to the measurement, but Hametz/leavened products on Passover are not monetary for they are prohibited to derive benefit [from it], and even to burn it is not appropriate and he has not lost anything.

בשוגג. ששגג בתרומה אפילו הזיד בחמץ:

משלם קרן וחומש. ואע״ג דחמץ בפסח אסור בהנאה ולא שוה מידי, משום דבאוכל תרומה בשוגג כתיב (ויקרא כ״ב:י״ד) ונתן לכהן את הקודש, דבר הראוי להיות קודש, שאין משלם לו מעות אלא פירות והתשלומים נעשים תרומה הלכך לאו בתר דמים אזלינן:

במזיד. שהזיד בתרומה אפילו שגג בחמץ פטור מן התשלומין:

ומדמי עצים. אם תרומה טמאה היא אין משלם דמי עצים שהיתה ראויה להסיק תחת תבשילו, משום דמזיד בתרומה אינו אלא כשאר גזלן דעלמא, ומעות משלם לפי דמים ולא לפי מדה, וחמץ בפסח לאו בר דמים הוא שהרי אסור בהנאה, ואף להיסק לא חזי ולא מידי אפסדיה: