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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 1 Mishnah 1

זבחים פרק א׳ משנה א׳


All slaughtered offerings that were slaughtered not for their own sake, i.e., during the slaughtering the slaughterer’s intent was to sacrifice a different offering, are fit, and one may continue their sacrificial rites and partake of their meat where that applies. But these offerings did not satisfy the obligation of the owner, who is therefore required to bring another offering. This is the halakha with regard to all offerings except for the Paschal offering and the sin offering. In those cases, if the owner sacrificed them not for their own sake, they are unfit. But there is a difference between the two exceptions. The Paschal offering is unfit only when sacrificed not for its sake at its appointed time, on the fourteenth day of Nisan after noon, while the sin offering is unfit any time that it is sacrificed not for its sake. Rabbi Eliezer says: The guilt offering too is unfit when sacrificed not for its sake. According to his opinion, the correct reading of the mishna is: The Paschal offering is unfit only at its appointed time, while the sin offering and the guilt offering are unfit at all times. Rabbi Eliezer said in explanation: The sin offering is brought for performance of a transgression and the guilt offering is brought for performance of a transgression. Just as a sin offering is unfit when sacrificed not for its sake, so too, the guilt offering is unfit when sacrificed not for its sake.

כָּל הַזְּבָחִים שֶׁנִזְבְּחוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָן, כְּשֵׁרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא עָלוּ לַבְּעָלִים לְשֵׁם חוֹבָה. חוּץ מִן הַפֶּסַח וּמִן הַחַטָּאת. הַפֶּסַח בִּזְמַנּוֹ, וְהַחַטָּאת, בְּכָל זְמָן. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף הָאָשָׁם. הַפֶּסַח בִּזְמַנּוֹ, וְהַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם, בְּכָל זְמָן. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, הַחַטָּאת בָּאָה עַל חֵטְא, וְהָאָשָׁם בָּא עַל חֵטְא. מַה חַטָּאת פְּסוּלָה שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָהּ, אַף הָאָשָׁם פָּסוּל שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמוֹ:


כל הזבחים שנזבחו שלא לשמן – as for example, that it was slaughtered as a burnt offering for the sake of a peace-offering.

כשרים – and he will sprinkle their blood and offer sacrifices on the altar for their sake. For through their holiness they exist and it is forbidden to change them.

אלא שלא עלו לבעלים לשם חובה (they do not go to the owner’s credit in fulfillment of an obligation) – and one must another for his obligation or fo his vow and slaughter it for its sake. For Scripture stated (Deuteronomy 23:24): “You must fulfill what has cross your lips and perform what you have voluntarily vowed to the LORD your God, [having made the promise with your own mouth];” if it is a voluntary [gift], it is now a vow, and if it is vow, it is not a voluntary [gift], but rather, this is what he said: if according to what you have vowed you have performed, that it was slaughtered for the sake of a vow and for the sake of the owners, it will be a votive offering, and the owner has fulfilled the obligation of his vow. But if not, that the sacrifice was slaughtered for the sake of the owners, it will be a free-will offering, meaning to say, that it is fit, as if he brought it as a free-will offering. But, he did not fulfill his vow, for it did not count for the owners for the sake of an obligation. And especially the sacrifice of an individual which has owners, but communal sacrifices that were not offered for their sake, they counted for the community for the sake of the obligation, for the slaughter decides the purpose for what they are appropriate for him. And especially when he slaughtered them explicitly not for their sake, then we say that they did not count for the owners for he sake of an obligation, But if he merely slaughtered them, they counted for the owners for an obligation.

חוץ מן הפסח – for regarding the Passover offering, it is written (Deuteronomy 16:1): “and offer a Passover sacrifice [to the LORD your God],” util all your actions will be for the sake of the Passover sacrifice, and further I is written (Exodus 12:1וחטא7): “and you shall say, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice [to the LORD’],”that the sacrifice will be for the sake of the Passover offering, and these two Biblical verses, one to invalidate if it was done not for the sake of the Passover offering, and one to invalidate if it was not done for the sake of its owners.

וחטאת – for regarding the sin-offering, there are two Biblical verses written, it is written (Leviticus 4:33): “and It shall be slaughtered as a purification offering,” that the slaughtering should be for the sake of a sin-offering, and it is written (Leviticus 4:25): “The priest shall take [with his finger] some of the blood of the purification offering [and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering],” until the reception of the blood and its sprinkling will be for the sake of the sin-offering, (Leviticus 4:31): “Thus the priest shall make expiation for him,[and he shall be forgiven],” for him, but not on his colleague, which is identical to that it will be for the sake of the owners. “For the sin of which he is guilty” (Leviticus 4:28, 35), that it will be for the sake of that sin. And it (i.e., the Torah) didn’t say to us that a sin-offering that is not for its own sake is invalid, but rather, that when he slaughtered it for the sake of other Holy Things, but if he he slaughtered it for non-sacred things it is appropriate/fit, but it does not count for the owners for the sake of the obligation, as it is written (Leviticus 22:15): “But [the priests] must not all ow the Israelites to profane the sacred donations,” Holy Things profane holy things, but non-sacred things do not profane holy things.

הפסח בזמנו – is invalid when it is not for its sake all the time of its being slaughtered, which means from the middle of the day on the Eve of Passover until the evening. But prior to that and after that, we hold that the Passover offering on the other days of the year is a peace-offering. And all of its laws are like that of peace-offerings.

אף השא – as the reason will be explained further one, the sin-offering comes [as atonement for] a sin, etc. as it is written ((Leviticus 7:7): “The reparation offering is like the purification offering.” But the Rabbis hold it is a sin-offering, which is witten concerning it as an exclusion, which is invalid. But the guilt offering, that doesn’t have an exclusion written concerning I is fit. But if you waya that regarding the guilt offering it is written that it is “a reparation offering” (Leviticus 7:5). But, it is not stated other than after the offering of those portions of the sacrifice on the altar, abut if he comes to exclude that which is not for its own sake that it is invalid, prior to the offering of the parts of the sacrifice on the altar, it should have been written [in the Torah]. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Eliezer.

כל הזבחים שנזבחו שלא לשמן. כגון שנשחטה עולה לשם שלמים:

כשרים. ויזרוק דמן ויקטיר אמוריהן לשמן. דבקדושתייהו קיימו ואסור לשנויי בהו:

אלא שלא עלו לבעלים לשם חובה. וצריך להביא אחר לחובתו או לנדרו וישחטנו לשמו. דאמר קרא (דברים כ״ג:כ״ד) מוצא שפתיך תשמור ועשית כאשר נדרת לה׳ אלהיך נדבה, אם נדבה אינו נדר, ואם נדר אינו נדבה, אלא הכי קאמר, אם כמה שנדרת עשית שנשחט לשם נדר ולשם הבעלים, יהא נדר ויצא הבעל ידי חובת נדרו. ואם לאו, שלא נשחט הזבח לשם בעלים, יהא נדבה, כלומר כשר הוא כאילו הביאו לנדבה, אבל לא יצא ידי נדרו, שלא עלה לבעלים לשם חובה. ודוקא קרבן יחיד שיש לו בעלים, אבל קרבנות צבור שנשחטו שלא לשמן, עלו לצבור לשם חובה, שהשחיטה מושכתן למה שהן ראויין לו. ודוקא כששחטן בפירוש שלא לשמן, אז אמרינן דלא עלו לבעלים לשם חובה. אבל שחטן סתם, עלו לבעלים לחובה:

חוץ מן הפסח. דבפסח כתיב (שם טז) ועשית פסח, עד שיהו כל עשיותיו לשם פסח, ועוד כתיב (שמות י״ב:כ״ז) ואמרתם זבח פסח הוא, שתהא זביחה לשם פסח, והנהו תרי קראי, חד לפסול אם נעשה שלא לשם פסח, וחד לפסול אם נעשה שלא לשם בעלים:

וחטאת. דבחטאת נמי כתיבי תרי קראי, כתיב (ויקרא ד׳:כ״ה) ושחט אותה, לחטאת, שתהא שחיטה לשם חטאת, וכתיב (שם) ולקח הכהן מדם החטאת, עד שתהא קבלת הדם וזריקתו לשם חטאת, וכפר עליו הכהן, עליו ולא על חברו, דהיינו שתהא לשם בעלים. מחטאתו אשר חטא, שתהא לשם אותו החטא. ולא אמרן דחטאת שלא לשמו פסול, אלא כששחטו לשם קדשים אחרים, אבל שחט לשם חולין, כשר, ולא עלה לבעלים לשם חובה, דכתיב (שם כב) ולא יחללו את קדשי בני ישראל, קדשים מחללין קדשים, ואין חולין מחללין קדשים:

הפסח בזמנו. פסול שלא לשמו כל זמן שחיטתו, דהיינו מחצות היום של ערב פסח עד הערב. אבל קודם לכן ואחר מכן, קיימא לן פסח בשאר ימות השנה שלמים הוי. וכל דינו כשלמים:

אף האשם. כדמפרש טעמא ואזיל, החטאת באה על החטא וכו׳ וכתיב כחטאת כאשם. ורבנן סברי, חטאת דכתיב ביה מיעוטא, פסול. אשם דלא כתיב ביה מיעוטא, כשר. ואם תאמר, אשם נמי כתיב ביה אשם הוא, האי, לא נאמר אלא לאחר הקטרת אימורין. ואם בא למעט שלא לשמו דפסול, קודם הקטרת אימורין היה צריך לכתבו. ואין הלכה כר׳ אליעזר: