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Mishnayos Sotah Perek 4 Mishnah 1

סוטה פרק ד׳ משנה א׳


With regard to a betrothed woman who secluded herself with another man after being warned by her betrothed, and a widow waiting for her brother-in-law [yavam] to perform levirate marriage who secluded herself with another man after being warned by her yavam, they neither drink the bitter water nor collect payment of their marriage contracts. The reason they are not entitled to payment of their marriage contracts is that the betrothed woman became forbidden to her betrothed or the widow became forbidden to her yavam due to her own actions of entering into seclusion with the paramour. And the fact that they do not drink the bitter water is as it is stated: “This is the law of jealousy, when a wife, while under her husband, goes astray, and is defiled” (Numbers 5:29). The verse excludes a betrothed woman and a widow awaiting her yavam; since they are not yet married, neither is considered as “under her husband.” The mishna delineates cases where the woman’s marriage was prohibited in the first place: With regard to a widow who was married to a High Priest, or a divorcée or ḥalutza who was married to a common priest, or a mamzeret or Gibeonite woman who was married to a Jew of unflawed lineage, or a Jewish woman of unflawed lineage who was married to a mamzer or a Gibeonite, all of these women neither drink the bitter water nor collect payment of their marriage contracts, as the sota ritual applies only to permitted marriages.

אֲרוּסָה וְשׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם, לֹא שׁוֹתוֹת וְלֹא נוֹטְלוֹת כְּתֻבָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ה), אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׂטֶה אִשָּׁה תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ, פְּרָט לַאֲרוּסָה וְשׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם. אַלְמָנָה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט, מַמְזֶרֶת וּנְתִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּבַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַמְזֵר וּלְנָתִין, לֹא שׁוֹתוֹת וְלֹא נוֹטְלוֹת כְּתֻבָּה:


ארוסה ושומרת יבם – a betrothed woman whose betrothed is jealous of her and the childless brother’s widow awaiting levirate marriage whose levir is jealous of her.

ולא נוטלות כתובה – for she caused to make herself prohibited upon him for she had retired under suspicious circumstances after a warning given to the suspected wife–manifestation of jealousy that from this manifestation of jealousy and the prohibition, one does not do less, as it is written (Numbers 5:12): “Speak to the Israelite people, etc.” which includes the betrothed woman and the childless brother’s widow awaiting levirate marriage.

תחת אישה – The verse states that she sits underneath him.

נתינה – from the Gibeonites and they are prohibited from entering the congregation [of the Lord].

לא שותות – this portion was not stated other than when it was appropriate to fulfill it, as it is written (Numbers 5:12): “if any man’s wife has gone astray.” The Biblical verse speaks of what is appropriate to marriage, except for a widow [married] with a High Priest [or a divorcee or a woman released from a levirate marriage by Halitzah with a regular Kohen,] etc.

ולא נוטלות כתובה – even though the rest of the widows with a Kohen Gadol–High Priest collect their Ketubot, as we state in [Tractate] Ketubot [100b and Tractate Yevamot 84a]. This woman does not have her Ketubah because her retiring under suspicious circumstances caused this to her.

ארוסה ושומרת יבם. ארוסה שקנא לה ארוס ושומרת יבם שקנא לה יבם:

לא שותות. דמעטינהו קרא:

ולא נוטלות כתובה. שהיא גרמה לאסור עצמה עליו, שנסתרה אחר קינוי, דמקינוי ואיסור לא אמעיט, דכתיב (במדבר ה) דבר אל בני ישראל כו׳, לרבות ארוסה ושומרת יבם לקינוי:

תחת אישה. ביושבת תחתיו הכתוב מדבר:

נתינה. מן הגבעונים. ואסורים לבא בקהל:

לא שותות. דלא נאמרה פרשה אלא בראויה לקיימה, דכתיב (שם) כי תשטה אשתו, בראויה לאישות הכתוב מדבר, פרט לאלמנה לכהן גדול וכו׳:

ולא נוטלות כתובה. ואע״ג דשאר אלמנות לכהן גדול גובות כתובתן כדאמרינן בכתובות [ק: וכן ביבמות פד.] זו אין לה כתובה, שסתירתה גרמה לה: