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Mishnayos Sotah Perek 3 Mishnah 8

סוטה פרק ג׳ משנה ח׳


What are the halakhic differences between a man and a woman? A man lets his hair grow and rends his garments when he is a leper, but a woman does not let her hair grow or rend her garments when she is a leper. A man can vow that his minor son shall be a nazirite, obligating the son to remain a nazirite even during his adulthood, but a woman cannot vow that her son shall be a nazirite. A man can shave at the culmination of his naziriteship by using offerings originally designated for his father’s naziriteship, i.e., if one’s father was also a nazirite and he died having already designated offerings for the culmination of his naziriteship; but a woman cannot shave at the culmination of her naziriteship by using offerings designated for her father’s naziriteship. A man can betroth his daughter to another man while she is a minor, but a woman cannot betroth her daughter even while she is a minor. A man can sell his daughter as a maidservant while she is a minor, but a woman cannot sell her daughter as a maidservant even while she is a minor. A man is stoned naked, but a woman is not stoned naked. A man is hanged after he is stoned for certain transgressions, but a woman is not hanged. A man is sold for his committing an act of theft in order to pay his debt, but a woman is not sold for her committing an act of theft.

מַה בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשָּׁה. הָאִישׁ פּוֹרֵעַ וּפוֹרֵם, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה פוֹרַעַת וּפוֹרֶמֶת. הָאִישׁ מַדִּיר אֶת בְּנוֹ בְּנָזִיר, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מַדֶּרֶת אֶת בְּנָהּ בְּנָזִיר. הָאִישׁ מְגַלֵּחַ עַל נְזִירוּת אָבִיו, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מְגַלַּחַת עַל נְזִירוּת אָבִיהָ. הָאִישׁ מוֹכֵר אֶת בִּתּוֹ, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מוֹכֶרֶת אֶת בִּתָּהּ. הָאִישׁ מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת בִּתּוֹ, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מְקַדֶּשֶׁת אֶת בִּתָּהּ. הָאִישׁ נִסְקָל עָרֹם, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה נִסְקֶלֶת עֲרֻמָּה. הָאִישׁ נִתְלֶה, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה נִתְלֵית. הָאִישׁ נִמְכָּר בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ, וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה נִמְכֶּרֶת בִּגְנֵבָתָהּ:


האיש פורע ופורם – when he is afflicted with leprosy, he lets his hair grow and tears his garments, as it is written (Leviticus 13:44): “The man is leprous; he is unclean.” A man lets his hair grow and he tears his garments. A woman does not let her hair grow and she does not tear her garments.

האיש מדיר בנו בנזיר – (this section of the Mishnah is also found in Tractate Nazir, Chapter 4, Mishnah 6) – His minor son and his Naziriteship falls upon him, and even when he grows up, and this Halakha is in [Tractate] Nazir and it has no support from the Torah.

האיש מגלח על נזירו אביו – (this section of the Mishnah is also found in Tractate Nazir, Chapter 5, Mishnah 7) – if his father made a vow in his Naziriteship and separated out his sacrifice (i.e., hair offering), and died, and his son was a Nazir, or that he took the vow of Naziriteship after the death of his father, the son shaves his head on the day of his fulfillment [of the vow] and he brings the sacrifices that his father separated out. And also this Halakha has no support.

האיש מקדש את בתו – (this section of the Mishnah is also found in Tractate Kiddushin, Chapter 2, Mishnah 1) – he accepts the betrothal of his minor daughter against her will, as it is written (Deuteronomy 22:16): “I gave this man my daughter to wife.”

האיש נסקל ערום – (this section of the Mishnah is also found in Tractate Sanhedrin, Chapter 6, Mishnayot 3-4) – as it is written (Leviticus 24:14): “and let [the whole community] stone him,” but it is impossible to state him and not her, for behold it is written (Deuteronomy 17:5): “you shall take the man or the woman [who did that wicked thing] out [to the public place],” but rather, him but not his clothing, but her (i.e., this woman) with her clothes.

האיש נתלה – as it is written (Deuteronomy 21:22): “and you impale him on a stake,” him and not her.

האיש נמכר בגניבתו – as it is written (Exodus 22:2): “he shall be sold for his theft,” and not her theft.

האיש פורע ופורם. כשהוא מנוגע פורע את ראשו ופורם את בגדיו, דכתיב (שם י״ג) איש צרוע הוא וכו׳, איש פורע ופורם, ואין אשה פורעת ופורמת:

האיש מדיר בנו בנזיר. בנו קטן. וחלה נזירתו עליו ואפילו לכשיגדל. וזו הלכה היא בנזיר ואין לה סמך מן התורה:

האיש מגלח על נזירות אביו. אם נדר אביו בנזירות והפריש קרבנותיו ומת והיה בנו נזיר או שנדר בנזירות לאחר מיתת אביו. הרי הבן מגלח ביום מלאת ומביא קרבנות שהפריש אביו. וגם זו הלכה ואין לה סמך:

האיש מקדש את בתו. מקבל קדושי בתו קטנה שלא מדעתה דכתיב (דברים כ״ב:ט״ז) את בתי נתתי לאיש הזה:

האיש נסקל ערום. דכתיב (ויקרא כ״ד) ורגמו אותו, ואי אפשר לומר אותו ולא אותה, דהא כתיב (דברים י״ז) והוצאת את האיש ההוא או את האשה ההיא, אלא אותו בלא כסותו אבל אותה בכסותה:

האיש נתלה. דכתיב (שם כ״א) ותלית אותו על עץ, אותו ולא אותה:

האיש נמכר בגניבתו. דבתיב (שמות ב״ב) ונמבר בגניבתו, ולא בגניבתה: