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Mishnayos Sanhedrin Perek 9 Mishnah 1

סנהדרין פרק ט׳ משנה א׳


And these are the transgressors who are burned in the implementation of the court-imposed death penalty: One who engaged in intercourse with a woman and her daughter, and one who is the daughter of a priest and who committed adultery. Included in the category of the prohibition of engaging in intercourse with a woman and her daughter and the resulting execution by burning, there are: His daughter, and the daughter of his daughter, and the daughter of his son. Likewise, the following are also included in this category: Intercourse with the daughter of his wife, even though she is not his daughter, and the daughter of her daughter, and the daughter of her son, as well as intercourse with his mother-in-law, and the mother of his mother-in-law, and the mother of his father-in-law. The prohibition and punishment apply both in cases where a man marries a woman and then engages in intercourse with her daughter, and in cases where a man marries a woman and then engages in intercourse with her mother. And these are the transgressors who are killed by decapitation in the implementation of the court-imposed death penalty: The murderer; and the residents of an idolatrous city, all of whom engaged in idol worship. The mishna elaborates: In the case of a murderer who struck another with a stone or with iron, or held him in the water or in the fire, and the victim could not extricate himself from there and he died,the murderer is liable to be executed. If one pushed another into the water or into the fire and that person could have extricated himself from there but failed to do so, and he died, the one who pushed him is exempt from punishment by a court, as he caused the death but did not actually kill the victim. For the same reason, if one set a dog against another and the dog killed him, or if one set a snake against another and the snake killed him, the one who set the dog or the snake is exempt from punishment. If he imbedded the snake’s fangs into another and caused the snake to bite him and kill him, Rabbi Yehuda deems him liable to be executed, as he is a murderer, and the Rabbis exempt him, as they maintain that he indirectly caused the individual’s death. In the case of one who strikes another, whether he does so with a stone or with his fist, and the doctors assessed his condition, estimating that it would lead to death, and then his condition eased from what it was, and the doctors revised their prognosis and predicted that he would live, and thereafter his condition worsened and he died, the assailant is liable to be executed as a murderer. Rabbi Neḥemya says: He is exempt, as there is a basis for the matter of assuming that he is not liable. Since the victim’s condition eased in the interim, a cause other than the blow struck by the assailant ultimately caused his death.

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַנִּשְׂרָפִין, הַבָּא עַל אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, וּבַת כֹּהֵן שֶׁזִּנְּתָה. יֵשׁ בִּכְלָל אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, בִּתּוֹ, וּבַת בִּתּוֹ, וּבַת בְּנוֹ, וּבַת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וּבַת בִּתָּהּ, וּבַת בְּנָהּ, חֲמוֹתוֹ, וְאֵם חֲמוֹתוֹ, וְאֵם חָמִיו. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַנֶּהֱרָגִים, הָרוֹצֵחַ וְאַנְשֵׁי עִיר הַנִּדָּחַת. רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁהִכָּה אֶת רֵעֵהוּ בְאֶבֶן אוֹ בְבַרְזֶל, וְכָבַשׁ עָלָיו לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָאוּר וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת מִשָּׁם, וָמֵת, חַיָּב. דְּחָפוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָאוּר וְיָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת מִשָּׁם, וָמֵת, פָּטוּר. שִׁסָּה בוֹ אֶת הַכֶּלֶב, שִׁסָּה בוֹ אֶת הַנָּחָשׁ, פָּטוּר. הִשִּׁיךְ בּוֹ אֶת הַנָּחָשׁ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין. הַמַּכֶּה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בֵּין בְּאֶבֶן בֵּין בְּאֶגְרוֹף וַאֲמָדוּהוּ לְמִיתָה, וְהֵקֵל מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיָה וּלְאַחַר מִכָּאן הִכְבִּיד וָמֵת, חַיָּב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, פָּטוּר, שֶׁרַגְלַיִם לַדָּבָר:


אלו הן הנשרפין. הבא על אשה ובתה – on a woman whose daughter has already married, that is his mother-in-law.

ובת כהן – and the daughter of a Kohen who ran about as a prostitute/was unchaste, [whose punishment] is by swallowing molten liquid.

יש בכלל אשה ובתה – that is to say, with a mother and her daughter, it is explicitly written "שריפה"/burning (Leviticus 20:14): “If a man marries a woman and her mother….they shall be put to the fire/"באש תשרפו" …,” and from it we derive that all of these also and it is they are [punished] by burning.

בתו – from an outraged woman, for she is not the daughter of his wife, and he is liable on her because of his wife’s daughter, but she is not his wife’s daughter.

בת בתו ובת בנו – for they were his from his being a victim of unavoidably prevented accident.

בת אשתו – whether she is his daughter or whether she is his step-daughter.

וחמותו – even though that it [the Mishnah] explicitly taught at the first section – he who has relations with a woman who has married her daughter, and it is does not come from a derivation, for since it was taught regarding these a general principle – for the mother of his mother-in-law and the mother of his father-in-law, that come from a derivation, the Mishnah also taught, by the way, regarding his mother-in-law with them.

כבש עליו – he grabbed the head of his fellow and held him firmly in the water so that he wasn’t able to raise his head.

שיסה – incite/let loose

השיך – that he held the snake in his hand and led him and the tenth of the snake reached the body of his fellow.

רבי יהודה מחייב – that he holds that the poison of the snake in its teeth stands, and since that the tenth of the snake arrived in the skin of his fellow, it is as if he had killed him, and is liable.

וחכמים פוטרין – for they hold that the snake himself vomits his poison; therefore, it was not he that killed him but rather a mere indirect effect and he is exempt. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

ואמדוהו למיתה – but we appraise him first for life. Even to the Rabbis, he is exempt.

שרגלים לדבר – that he didn’t die on account of that wound.

ואלו הן הנשרפים. הבא על אשה ובתה. על אשה שכבר נשא בתה, דהיינו חמותו:

ובת כהן. וכן בת כהן שזנתה היא בשריפה:

יש בכלל אשה ובתה. כלומר באשה ובתה כתיבא שריפה בהדיא (ויקרא כ׳) ואיש אשר יקח את אשה ואת אמה וגו׳ באש ישרפו, ומינה ילפינן כולהו הנך נמי, דאיתנהו בשרפה:

בתו. מאנוסתו, דלאו בת אשתו היא דלחייב עליה משום בת אשתו. דהא לאו בת אשתו היא:

בת בתו ובת בנו. שהיו לו מאנוסתו:

בת אשתו. בין שהיא בתו בין שהיא חורגתו:

וחמותו. אע״ג דתנא לה רישא בהדיא הבא על אשה שנשא בתה, ולא מדרשא אתיא, איידי דתני בהך כללא אם חמותו ואם חמיו דאתיא מדרשא, תנא נמי אגב ריהטא חמותו בהדייהו:

כבש עליו. אחז ראשו של חברו ותקפו בתוך המים שלא יוכל להרים ראשו:

שיסה. גירה:

השיך. שאחז הנחש בידו והוליכו והגיע שיני הנחש לגוף של חבירו:

רבי יהודה מחייב. דסבר ארס נחש בשיניו עומד, ומכיון שהגיע שיני הנחש בבשרו של חברו הוי כאילו הרגו וחייב:

וחכמים פוטרין. דקא סברי ארס נחש מעצמו הוא מקיא, הלכך לאו איהו קטליה אלא גרמא בעלמא הוא ופטור. והלכה כחכמים:

ואמדוהו למיתה. אבל אמדוהו תחלה לחיים, אפילו לרבנן פטור:

והוקל ממה שהיה. וחזרו ואמדוהו לחיים:

שרגלים לדבר. שלא מת מחמת מכה זו: