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Mishnayos Sanhedrin Perek 10 Mishnah 5

סנהדרין פרק י׳ משנה ה׳


From the verse: “You shall smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword” (Deuteronomy 13:16), it is derived that the caravan of donkeys and the caravan of camels that move from place to place, these donkey or camel drivers save the city. If they were residing in the city for a period, they could join the minority of permanent residents who were not subverted to idol worship in order to create a majority and prevent the destruction of the city and its contents. It is stated: “Destroy it utterly, and all that is in it and its animals, with the edge of the sword” (Deuteronomy 13:16). From here, the Sages stated: The property of the righteous, who did not engage in idol worship, that is inside the city is destroyed with the rest of the city and its contents; but the property of the righteous that is outside the city is spared. And the property of the wicked, whether it is inside the city or whether it is outside the city, these items are destroyed.

הַכֵּה תַכֶּה אֶת וְגוֹ' (דברים יג). הַחַמֶּרֶת וְהַגַּמֶּלֶת הָעוֹבֶרֶת מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַצִּילִין אוֹתָהּ. הַחֲרֵם אֹתָהּ וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּהּ וְאֶת בְּהֶמְתָּהּ לְפִי חָרֶב (שם), מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ נִכְסֵי צַדִּיקִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹבְדִין, שֶׁבְּחוּצָה לָהּ פְּלֵטִין. וְשֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, בֵּין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ בֵּין שֶׁבְּחוּצָה לָהּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אוֹבְדִין:


החמרת והגמלת – a caravan of donkeys and of camels that were delayed in the city for thirty days, they are included in those who are the dwellers of their city.

הרי אלו מצילין – If most of the people of the city were led astray and a minority were not led astray, and [a caravan of] ass- and camel-drivers which were not led astray overturned the minority to become a majority, they save [the city] – thus the property is spared, and [the sinners] are judged as individuals. And the same is true that [a caravan] may cause [a city] to be rendered as an Apostate City if they were subverted with them to form a majority, however, the tanna is searching for [scenarios of] acquittal. Furthermore, [the tanna considered] this [scenario] more decisive, as typically, a caravan of ass- and camel-drivers is not well disposed towards the people of the city to be led astray with them.

החמרת והגמלת. שיירא של חמרים ושל גמלים שנשתהו בעיר שלשים יום, הוי להו בכלל יושבי עירם:

הרי אלו מצילין. אם רוב אנשי העיר הודחו ומיעוט לא הודחו, וחמרים וגמלים שלא הודחו משלימין את המועט לעשות רוב, הרי אלו מצילין, שאין ממונן אבד אלא נדונין כיחידים. והוא הדין דגורמין נמי לעשות עיר הנדחת, אם הודחו עמם לעשותם רוב, אלא דתנא אזכותא קא מהדר. ועוד דהא פסיקא ליה טפי, דסתם חמרת וגמלת אין דעתן מעורבת עם בני העיר שיהיו נדחין עמהן: