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Mishnayos Parah Perek 12 Mishnah 4

פרה פרק י"ב משנה ד׳


If one was sprinkling from a window in a public domain and [a man who was thus sprinkled upon] entered the sanctuary, and the water was found to be invalid, he is exempt; But if the sprinkling was done from a private window and [a man who was thus sprinkled upon] entered the sanctuary, and the water was found to be invalid, he is liable. A high priest, however, is exempt, whether the sprinkling upon him was done from a private window or from one in a public domain, for a high priest is never liable for entering the sanctuary. [The people] used to slip before a certain window in a public domain, and [nevertheless] they trod [on that spot] and did not refrain [from entering the sanctuary], because they said that hatat waters whose mitzvah had been performed do not defile.

הַמַּזֶּה מֵחַלּוֹן שֶׁל רַבִּים וְנִכְנַס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְנִמְצְאוּ הַמַּיִם פְּסוּלִים, פָּטוּר. מֵחַלּוֹן שֶׁל יָחִיד וְנִכְנַס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְנִמְצְאוּ הַמַּיִם פְּסוּלִין, חַיָּב. אֲבָל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, בֵּין מֵחַלּוֹן שֶׁל יָחִיד בֵּין מֵחַלּוֹן שֶׁל רַבִּים, פָּטוּר, שֶׁאֵין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל חַיָּב עַל בִּיאַת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. מַחֲלִיקִין הָיוּ לִפְנֵי חַלּוֹן שֶׁל רַבִּים וְדוֹרְסִין וְלֹא נִמְנָעִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ, מֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁעָשׂוּ מִצְוָתָן, אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין:


המזה מחלון של רבים – that stands in the window in the public domain and sprinkles there on the impure that pass by, and he sprinkled on an impure person thinking that the waters that are in his hands are pure for sprinkling.

ונמצאו פסולים – if he entered with this sprinkling to the Sanctuary, the impure person is example from a sacrifice [on his entering into the Sanctuary while impure], for this is a doubtful/uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity in the public domain (i.e., by Torah law, if uncertainty arises concerning the ritual purity of a person or an object, and that person or object is in a public domain, they are ritually pure. If the situation arises in a private domain, they are considered ritually impure) and his doubtful purity is deemed to be pure. And Maimonides explained the reason, that this impure person is under compulsion/unavoidably prevented, for he did not have in mind to check if the waters were fit/suitable for sprinkling or not, since he was standing in the public domain and sprinkling on many people. But if he stands in the window of a single individual and sprinkles, the impure person would have to check on the waters if they are fit/suitable, or not, and since he did not check, it is an inadvertent error but not something unavoidably preventable, and if he entered into the Sanctuary with this sprinkling, he is liable for a sacrifice, for this is like a doubtful impurity in the private domain where this doubt is impure.

שאין כהן גדול חייב על ביאת המקדש – as it is written (Numbers 19:20): “[If anyone who has become impure fails to purify himself, [that person shall be cut off from the congregation, [for he has defiled the LORD’s sanctuary],” the waters of purification are equivalent to the congregation, that is to individuals, excluding the High Priest, whose sin is not equivalent to that of individuals.

מחליקין היו (they would slip [on water]) – meaning to say, that there were so much waters of purification there until people would slip upon them, and even so they would trample on them, because they would not defile, since their Mitzvah was done.

המזה מחלון של רבים. שעומד בחלון של רבים והזה שם על הטמאים העוברים, והזה על הטמא כסבור שהמים שבידו טהורים להזאה:

ונמצאו פסולים. אם נכנס בהזאה זו למקדש, פטור הטמא מקרבן, דהוי כספק טומאה ברה״ר דספיקו טהור. ופירש הרמב״ם הטעם, דטמא זה אנוס הוא, דלא הוה ליה לאסוקי אדעתיה ולבדוק אם המים כשרין להזאה אם לאו, כיון שהיה עומד ברה״ר ומזה על הרבים. אבל העומד בחלון של יחיד ומזה, הוה ליה לטמא לבדוק על המים אם כשרים, אם לאו, וכיון דלא בדק, שגגה היא זו ולא אונס, ואם נכנס למקדש בהזאה זו חייב קרבן, דהוי כספק טומאה ברה״י דספיקו טמא:

שאין כהן גדול חייב על ביאת המקדש. דכתיב (במדבר י״ט) ונכרתה הנפש ההיא מתוך הקהל, מי שחטאו שוה לקהל דהיינו ליחידים, פרט לכהן גדול שאין חטאו שוה ליחידים:

מחליקין היו. כלומר כל כך מי חטאת היו שם עד שהיו מחליקין בהן בני אדם, ואפ״ה דורסים בהן, משום דלא מטמאין, הואיל ונעשית מצותן: