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Mishnayos Parah Perek 10 Mishnah 1

פרה פרק י׳ משנה א׳


Any object that is susceptible to midras uncleanness is for the purpose of the hatat waters deemed to have madaf uncleanness, whether it was otherwise unclean or clean. A person too is subject to the same rule. Any object that is susceptible to corpse uncleanness, whether it is otherwise unclean or clean: Rabbi Eliezer says: it does not have madaf uncleanness. Rabbi Joshua says: it has madaf uncleanness; And the sages say: that which was unclean has madaf uncleanness, and that which was clean does not have madaf uncleanness.

כֹּל הָרָאוּי לִטַּמֵּא מִדְרָס, מַדָּף לְחַטָּאת, בֵּין טָמֵא בֵּין טָהוֹר. וְאָדָם, כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. כֹּל הָרָאוּי לִטַּמֵּא טְמֵא מֵת, בֵּין טָמֵא בֵּין טָהוֹר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ מַדָּף. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, מַדָּף. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, הַטָּמֵא, מַדָּף. וְהַטָּהוֹר, אֵינוֹ מַדָּף:


כל הראוי לטמא מדרס (all that is appropriate to be made ritually impure by treading – by someone with gonorrhea, a woman in flux, a woman after childbirth and a menstruating woman) – as for example, designated vessels for lying, sitting and riding.

מדף לחטאת (indirect contact for conferring ritual impurity – based upon Rabbinic decree – for objects above a man with gonorrhea for the purification rite) – if the pure person with the waters for purification/sin-offering shook them [so as to move it from its place]. Even they are pure for heave-offering [for a Kohen], those who shake them are defiled as if they are defiled through treading, and it is a mere stringency as we state [in Tractate Hagigah 18b -Mishnah Hagigah 2:7]: "בגדי אוכלי תרומה מדרס לקודש"/”The clothing of those who eat heave offering is in the status of Midras/treading uncleanness for those who eat Holy Things {i.e., officiating priests). We call it מדף/indirect contact by shaking, because it is a mere stringency of the Rabbis. It is he language of (Leviticus 26:36): “The sound of a driven leaf [shall put them to flight].”

ואדם כיוצא בהן – if a person who is clean/pure for a purification/sin-offering shook a person who is pure for heave-offering, the purification/sin-offering is defiled and those who are pure for heave-offering are considered as men who have gonorrhea/a flux regarding the sin-offering.

וכל הראוי ליטמא טמא מת - as for example, vessels that are not trodden subject to Levitical uncleanness through the immediate contact of someone with gonorrhea by treading or leaning against.

ר' אליעזר אומר אינו מדף – if he shook them it was not defiled for the purification/sin-offering.

ר' יהושע אומר מדף – if he shook them, even those that are pure are defiled for the purification/sin-offering. But the Rabbis dispute and divide it between those that are impure and those that are pure. There are three disputes in this matter, and the Halakha is according to the Sages (i.e., that which is [actually] unclean [because of the corpse] is [regarded as unclean with indirect contact/Maddaf uncleanness, and that which is [actually] clean is not [regarded as] unclean with Maddaf/indirect contact uncleanness).

כל הראוי לטמא מדרס. כגון כלים המיוחדים למשכב ומושב ומרכב:

מדף לחטאת. אם הטהור למי חטאת הסיטן. אפילו הן טהורין לתרומה נטמא המסיטם כאילו הן טמאים מדרס. וחומרא בעלמא היא כדאמרינן [בחגיגה י״ח] בגדי אוכלי תרומה מדרס לקודש. וקרי ליה מדף, לפי שהיא חומרא דרבנן בעלמא. לשון קול עלה נדף (ויקרא כז):

ואדם כיוצא בהן. שאם הטהור לחטאת הסיט אדם הטהור לתרומה, נטמא לחטאת, שהטהורים לתרומה נחשבים כזבים לגבי חטאת:

וכל הראוי ליטמא טמא מת. כגון כלים דלאו בני מדרס:

ר׳ אליעזר אומר אינו מדף. ואם הסיטן לא נטמא לחטאת:

ר׳ יהושע אומר מדף. אם הסיט אפילו הטהורים, נטמא לחטאת. ורבנן פליגי ומחלקים בין טמאים לטהורים. ושלש מחלוקות בדבר. והלכה כחכמים: