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Mishnayos Nedarim Perek 3 Mishnah 4

נדרים פרק ג׳ משנה ד׳


One may take a vow to murderers, i.e., people suspected of killing others over monetary matters; or to robbers [ḥaramin]; or to tax collectors who wish to collect tax, that the produce in his possession is teruma although it is not teruma. One may also take a vow to them that the produce in his possession belongs to the house of the king, although it does not belong to the house of the king. One may take a false vow to save himself or his possessions, as a statement of this sort does not have the status of a vow. Beit Shammai say: One may vow in such a case, although he has no intention that his words be true, using every means of taking a vow or making a prohibition in order to mislead those people, except for by taking of an oath, due to its more stringent nature. And Beit Hillel say: One may mislead them even by taking an oath. Beit Shammai say: When negotiating with a robber, one should not initiate by taking a vow for him unless the robber does not believe his claim, in which case he may take a vow to reinforce his words. And Beit Hillel say: He may even initiate by taking a vow to him. Beit Shammai say: One may take a vow only about that which the robber compels him to take a vow but may not add to it. And Beit Hillel say: One may take a vow even about that which he does not compel him to take a vow. The mishna explains the previous statement: How so? If the extortionist said to him that he should say: Benefiting from me is konam for my wife if the vow is not true, and he said: Benefiting from me is konam for my wife and my children, Beit Shammai say: His wife is permitted to benefit from him, since the extortionist demanded that he take that vow, but his children, whom he added of his own accord, are prohibited from benefiting from their father. And Beit Hillel say: Both these and those are permitted to benefit from him.

נוֹדְרִין לָהֳרָגִין וְלָחֳרָמִין וְלַמּוֹכְסִין שֶׁהִיא תְרוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ תְּרוּמָה, שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁל בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בַּכֹּל נוֹדְרִין, חוּץ מִבִּשְׁבוּעָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף בִּשְׁבוּעָה. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֹא יִפְתַּח לוֹ בְנֶדֶר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף יִפְתַּח לוֹ. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בְּמַה שֶּׁהוּא מַדִּירוֹ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף בְּמַה שֶּׁאֵינוֹ מַדִּירוֹ. כֵּיצַד, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֱמוֹר קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי נֶהֱנֵית לִי, וְאָמַר קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי וּבָנַי נֶהֱנִין לִי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אִשְׁתּוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת וּבָנָיו אֲסוּרִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין:


להרגין – robbers that kill a person and take his money.

ולחרמים – thieves that do not kill, and not only this, even that is taught (i.e., the cases in the Mishnah that are in descending order of demonstrability).

ולמוכסין – a customs/tax collector that stands on his own. But a tax-collector that was appointed by the king (i.e., “the state”) whether the king is an Israelite or a non-Jew and takes a specified amount as the law of the kingdom, “the law of the land is the law,” and it is forbidden to flee from the tax-collector, and all the more so, that it is forbidden to take a vow or to swear to him a falsehood/lie.

שהן של תרומה – even though they kill and steal, we don’t eat something that is forbidden (other than to Kohanim). Alternatively, heave-offering is not important to them because it is not eaten other to pure Kohanim and is sold very cheaply.

לא יפתח לו בנדר – if the violent man did not ask of him to take an oath, he should not begin with an oath.

כמה שהוא מדירו ([one takes a vow] only in the matter concerning which a vow is imposed) – if the violent man did not ash of hm to take a vow, he should not take a vow to him other than in what he asked alone, and not take a vow to him in another matter. And ll of these four vows that are taught in our Mishnah, the laws of vows and oaths are equal, but what is permissible in a vow is permissible in an oath and it doesn’t require a release, except for vows of incitement alone, that require release from the words of the Scribes, therefore, an oath is forbidden with them.

להרגין. לסטים שהורגין האדם ונוטלין את ממונו:

ולחרמין. גזלנים שאינם הורגים. ולא זו אף זו קתני:

ולמוכסין. במוכס העומד מאליו. אבל מוכס שהעמידו המלך, בין מלך ישראל בין מלך נכרי ולוקח דבר קצוב בחוק המלכות, דינא דמלכותא דינא ואסור לברוח מן המכס וכל שכן שאסור לידור ולישבע לו לשקר:

שהן של תרומה. אע״פ שהורגין וגוזלין, אין אוכלין דבר האסור. אי נמי, תרומה לא חשיבא להו מתוך שאינה נאכלת אלא לכהנים טהורים נמכרת בזול הרבה:

לא יפתח לו בנדר. אם לא שאל ממנו האנס שידור לא יתחיל הוא בנדר:

במה שהוא מדירו. אם שאל ממנו האנס לידור לא ידור לו אלא במה ששאל בלבד, ולא ידור לו בדבר אחר. וכל הני ארבעה נדרים דתנא במתניתין, דין הנדרים והשבועות שוים, ומה שמותר בנדר מותר בשבועה ואין צריכים התרה, חוץ מנדרי זירוזין בלבד שצריכים התרה מדברי סופרים, לפיכך השבועה אסורה בהם: