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Mishnayos Nazir Perek 9 Mishnah 2

נזיר פרק ט׳ משנה ב׳


With regard to a nazirite who shaved for the conclusion of his naziriteship, and it later became known to him that during his naziriteship he was ritually impure from a corpse, if it was a known impurity, i.e., people were aware of the impurity when he became impure, he negates his entire naziriteship. And if it was ritual impurity imparted by a grave in the depths, one that was unknown at the time, he does not negate his naziriteship. If he discovered he was impure before he shaved, he negates his naziriteship in either case. The mishna asks: How does one differentiate between a known and an unknown impurity? If a nazirite descended to immerse in a cave, and a corpse was found floating at the mouth of the cave, he is impure, as an openly visible corpse is a known impurity. What, then, is an impurity of the depths? This is referring to a case where the corpse was found sunk into the ground of the cave in such a manner that it was unknown. However, even here the circumstances of the case must be taken into account. If one descended not descend to immerse himself in the water, as he was ritually pure, but to cool himself, he remains pure. If he was impure and entered the water to purify himself from the impurity from a corpse, he is impure. The reason is that something that has the presumptive status of impurity remains impure, and something that has the presumptive status of purity is pure, as there is a basis for the matter. It is reasonable that items or people retain their presumptive status.

נָזִיר שֶׁגִּלַּח וְנוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא, אִם טֻמְאָה יְדוּעָה, סוֹתֵר. וְאִם טֻמְאַת הַתְּהוֹם, אֵינוֹ סוֹתֵר. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא גִלַּח, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ סוֹתֵר. כֵּיצַד, יָרַד לִטְבֹּל בִּמְעָרָה וְנִמְצָא מֵת צָף עַל פִּי הַמְּעָרָה, טָמֵא. נִמְצָא מְשֻׁקָּע בְּקַרְקַע הַמְּעָרָה, יָרַד לְהָקֵר, טָהוֹר. לִטַּהֵר מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת, טָמֵא, שֶׁחֶזְקַת טָמֵא טָמֵא וְחֶזְקַת טָהוֹר טָהוֹר, שֶׁרַגְלַיִם לַדָּבָר:


נזיר שגלח – he brought his sacrifices and cut his hair/shaved upon them and afterwards it became known to him that he had become ritually unclean/impure during his days of Naziriteship.

אם טומאה ידועה – an impurity that it was possible that it was known such as the case of it was not the grave in the depth (i.e., a covered – up uncleanness discovered – In the Jerusalem Talmud Nazir 57f, it is asked? What is a grave of the depth? A corpse buried in stubble, straw, earth, or pebbles, but if buried in water, it does not make a grave of the depth – i.e., it does not make unclean that which was above it before discovery; or, a grave that nobody remembers to have existed).

סותר – and he returns and counts another [period] of Naziriteship.

טומאת התהום אינו סותר – if it became known to him that in the place that he passed was defilement in the depth, but it is a defilement that no one recognizes it even to the end of the world, even though he certainly was ritually impure, he does not lose [the days he had already counted], for such is the Halakha concerning a Nazirite.

אם עד שלא גלח – a shearing in purity even if he had already brought his sacrifices, for since it became known to him prior to his shaving/cutting his hair.

בין כך ובין כך – whether it is a known defilement whether it is a defilement of the depth, he loses [the days that he had counted in fulfillment of his Nazirite vow] for it is derived that defilement of the depth does not cause loss [of the period counted in fulfillment of his Nazirite vow] specifically after his shaving/cutting his hair in spiritual purity.

כיצד – the law of defilement of the depth.

ירד לטבול במערה – for he was defiled through the defilement of an unclean reptile, or another defilement of a similar nature which is not from a dead person, and he went down to immerse from his defilement, and it was found [there] an olive’s bulk from a dead person floating on the face of the water and it is uncertain/doubtful whether he became defiled through it or he was not defiled, he is impure, but we hold that an uncertain/doubtful defilement floating on top of the water is pure, but these words regard the defilement of an unclean reptile. But regarding the defilement through contact with the dead, he is impure, and if this uncertainty/doubt was known to him after he had cut his hair/shaved, he is impure, for this is known defilement, for since he was in a place where it was possible that people would see him. And that which it (i.e., the Mishnah) took [linguistically] that he went down to immerse, it is something remarkable that is being taught to us, for even though that a person who immerses from his defilement to ritual purity is warned from all things that defile, even so, he is defiled.

נמצא משוקע בקרקע המערה – in the place that he immersed and he has certainly become defiled. If it became known to him after he shaved/cut his hair, he is pure, and he doesn’t lose [any of the time of his vow as a Nazirite] for this is the defilement of the depth which was in a place where it was not known to any person.

ירד להקר טהור – even though he went down to cool off and chill himself, but he did not go down to immerse in order that he would be careful from defilement, even so, he is ritually pure, if he was not defiled through contact with the dead, but if he did go down to purify himself from defilement from contact with the dead, and he immersed in a cave where the dead was embedded in it and he completed his Naziriteship, or was a person who was defiled by contact with the dead that had immersed, and afterwards accepted upon himself Naziriteship, he is defiled and loses [the period that he had fulfilled of his Nazirite vow] for something presumed impure is impure and something presumed pure is pure.

שרגלים לדבר – meaning to say, there is a rationale and principle to the matter to state that one does not derive a Halakha for defilement in a depth, which for a Nazirite is pure, other than when he was a Nazirites who was presumed to be pure, and when he was presumed to be impure.

נזיר שגלח. שהביא קרבנותיו וגילח עליהן ואח״כ נודע לו שנטמא בימי נזירותו:

אם טומאה ידועה. טומאה שאפשר שהיתה ידועה, כגון שאינה קבר התהום:

סותר. וחוזר ומונה נזירות אחרת:

ואם טומאת התהום אינו סותר. אם נודע לו שבמקום שעבר היתה טומאת התהום והיא טומאה שאין אחד מכירה אפילו בסוף העולם, אע״פ שודאי טמא היה אינו סותר, דהלכה היא כך בנזיר:

אם עד שלא גלח. תגלחת טהרה, אע״פ שכבר הביא קרבנותיו. הואיל ונודע לו קודם הגילוח:

בין כך ובין כך. בין טומאה ידועה בין טומאת התהום, סותר. דהא דגמירי דטומאת התהום אינה סותרת, היינו דוקא אחר גלוח של טהרה:

כיצד. דין טומאת התהום:

ירד לטבול במערה. שהיה טמא טומאת שרץ או טומאה אחרת כיוצא בה שאינה של מת, וירד לטבול מטומאתו, ונמצא כזית מן המת צף על פני המים ספק נטמא בו או לא נטמא, טמא. והא דקיימא לן ספק טומאה צפה על פני המים טהור, הני מילי בטומאת שרץ, אבל בטומאת מת, טמא. ואם נודע לו ספק זה אף אחר שגלח, טמא, דהיינו טומאה ידועה, הואיל והיתה במקום שאפשר שיראוה בני אדם. והאי דנקט ירד לטבול, רבותא קמ״ל, דאע״ג דהטובל מטומאה לטהרה נזהר מכל דבר המטמא, אפ״ה טמא:

נמצא משוקע בקרקע המערה. במקום שטבל ובודאי נטמא. אם נודע לו אחר שגלח, טהור ואינו סותר, דהיינו טומאת התהום, שהיתה במקום שלא היתה ידועה לשום אדם:

ירד להקר טהור. אע״פ שירד להקר ולהצטנן ולא ירד לטבול כדי שיהיה נזהר מטומאה, אפ״ה טהור אם לא היה טמא מת. אבל אם ירד ליטהר מטומאת מת וטבל במערה שהיה המת משוקע בה והשלים נזירותו, או טמא מת שטבל ואח״כ קבל עליו נזירות, טמא וסותר, שחזקת טמא טמא וחזקת טהור טהור:

שרגלים לדבר. כלומר טעם ועיקר יש לדבר לומר דלא גמירי הלכתא לטומאת התהום שהיא טהורה בנזיר אלא כשהיה הנזיר בחזקת טהור ולא כשהיה בחזקת טמא: