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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 1 Mishnah 10

מכות פרק א׳ משנה י׳


This mishna continues to discuss the matter of testimony in the case of one who is liable to be executed. Concerning one whose verdict was delivered and he was sentenced to death and he fled, and he then came before the same court that sentenced him, they do not overturn his verdict and retry him. Rather, the court administers the previous verdict. Consequently, in any place where two witnesses will stand and say: We testify with regard to a man called so-and-so that his verdict was delivered and he was sentenced to death in the court of so-and-so, and so-and-so and so-and-so were his witnesses, that person shall be executed on the basis of that testimony. The mishna continues: The mitzva to establish a Sanhedrin with the authority to administer capital punishments is in effect both in Eretz Yisrael and outside Eretz Yisrael. A Sanhedrin that executes a transgressor once in seven years is characterized as a destructive tribunal. Since the Sanhedrin would subject the testimony to exacting scrutiny, it was extremely rare for a defendant to be executed. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: This categorization applies to a Sanhedrin that executes a transgressor once in seventy years. Rabbi Tarfon and Rabbi Akiva say: If we had been members of the Sanhedrin, we would have conducted trials in a manner whereby no person would have ever been executed. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In adopting that approach, they too would increase the number of murderers among the Jewish people. The death penalty would lose its deterrent value, as all potential murderers would know that no one is ever executed.

מִי שֶׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ וּבָרַח וּבָא לִפְנֵי אוֹתוֹ בֵית דִּין, אֵין סוֹתְרִים אֶת דִּינוֹ. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּעַמְדוּ שְׁנַיִם וְיֹאמְרוּ, מְעִידִין אָנוּ בְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי שֶׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי, וּפְלוֹנִי וּפְלוֹנִי עֵדָיו, הֲרֵי זֶה יֵהָרֵג. סַנְהֶדְרִין נוֹהֶגֶת בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. סַנְהֶדְרִין הַהוֹרֶגֶת אֶחָד בְּשָׁבוּעַ נִקְרֵאת חָבְלָנִית. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, אֶחָד לְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמְרִים, אִלּוּ הָיִינוּ בַסַּנְהֶדְרִין לֹא נֶהֱרַג אָדָם מֵעוֹלָם. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אַף הֵן מַרְבִּין שׁוֹפְכֵי דָמִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:


Sanhendrin. that have smicha in the land of Israel. They have permission to judge cases of fines and capital cases, whether in the land or outside, as long as the Grand Court is in the Chamber of Hewn Stone. As it is written (Deuteronomy 17:12) "in not listening to the priest...or the judge", as long as there is a priest offering sacrifices on the altar, there is a judge that rules capital cases. When there is no priest, there is no judge.

The Sanhedrin that kills once in seven. Once in seven years.

is called destructive. They need to be deliberate in judgment, and judge capital cases to vindication.

No one would ever be killed. They would interrogate the witnesses about things that they would be unable to respond. Regarding a murder, [they'll be asked] "What did you see, was he a treifah or healthy?". And they'll say he was healthy, perhaps the place he was stabbed already had a [deathly] puncture. Regarding sexual immorality, [they'll be asked] "Did you see the makeup applicator inserted into the tube?".

They're even increasing murder. Due to this we aren't destroying wicked people and are increasing the spilling of blood.

סנהדרין. הסמוכים בארץ, יש להן רשות לדון דיני קנסות ודיני נפשות, בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ, כל זמן שיש ב״ד הגדול בלשכת הגזית. שנאמר (דברים י״ז) לבלתי שמוע אל הכהן או אל השופט, בזמן שיש כהן מקריב על גבי מזבח יש שופט שדן דיני נפשות, בזמן שאין כהן אין שופט:

סנהדרין ההורגת אחת בשבוע. אחת לשבע שנים:

נקראת חובלנית. שצריך שיהיו מתונים בדין, ויחזירו בדיני נפשות לזכות:

לא נהרג אדם מעולם. שיבדקו העדים בדבר שלא ידעו להשיב. אם רוצח הוא, מה ראיתם, טריפה הרג או שלם הרג, ואם תמצא לומר שלם הרג, שמא במקום סייף נקב היה. ואם מגלה עריות הוא, ראיתם כמכחול בשפופרת:

אף הן מרבים שופכי דמים. מתוך כך אין מכלין הרשעים ומרבים לשפוך דם: