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Mishnayos Kesuvos Perek 6 Mishnah 6

כתובות פרק ו׳ משנה ו׳


With regard to a minor orphan girl whose mother or brothers married her off, even with her consent to a small dowry, she retains her rights to a proper dowry. And thus, if they wrote for her a dowry of one hundred or of fifty dinars, she may, upon reaching majority, exact from her mother, or brothers, or their respective estates the sum of money that is fit to be given to her as a dowry, which is one-tenth of the family’s estate. Even if she agreed to forgo part of this sum as a minor, she may collect it as an adult. Rabbi Yehuda says: If the father married off the first daughter before he died, a dowry should be given to the second daughter in the same manner that he gave one to the first daughter. And the Rabbis say: There is no ready standard, since sometimes a person is poor and then becomes wealthy, or a person is wealthy and then becomes poor, so a family’s allowance for dowries is subject to change. Rather, the court appraises the property and gives her the appropriate sum.

יְתוֹמָה שֶׁהִשִּׂיאַתָּה אִמָּהּ אוֹ אַחֶיהָ מִדַּעְתָּהּ, וְכָתְבוּ לָהּ בְּמֵאָה אוֹ בַחֲמִשִּׁים זוּז, יְכוֹלָה הִיא מִשֶּׁתַּגְדִּיל לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָן מַה שֶּׁרָאוּי לְהִנָּתֵן לָהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם הִשִּׂיא אֶת הַבַּת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, יִנָּתֵן לַשְּׁנִיָּה כְדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנָּתַן לָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, פְּעָמִים שֶׁאָדָם עָנִי וְהֶעֱשִׁיר אוֹ עָשִׁיר וְהֶעֱנִי, אֶלָּא שָׁמִין אֶת הַנְּכָסִים וְנוֹתְנִין לָהּ:


מה שראוי ליתן לה – one tenth of the property.

אם השיא – the father, during his lifetime.

[married off the first daughter], he should give, etc. (i.e., to the second what the first received), whether it is less than one tenth or whether it is more. And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Yehuda, for we go after the approximate mental assessment of the father. But if it is impossible to stand by the approximate mental assessment of the father, we give her one-tenth of his possessions as they are found now at the time of her wedding from his immovable (i.e. landed) possessions, but from movable possessions, she does not receive one-tenth. And there are those according to the one who states that in this time, from movable [possessions] she also has one-tenth. But if she married and she did not claim from the heirs, she claims after she got married and we don’t say that she resigned her claim regarding them. And especially, when she was supported from the property of her father but if the heirs stopped from giving her support, [she resigned her claim unless she derived benefit] but if she was an adult woman, she has no support from the property of her father and she resigned her claim regarding the heirs and she is not able to claim further, and even if she was supported from their property.

מה שראוי ליתן לה. עישור נכסים:

אם השיא. האב בחייו:

את הבת הראשונה ינתן וכו׳ בין שהוא פחות מעישור בין שהוא יותר. והלכה כרבי יהודה דאזלינן בתר אומדן דעתיה דאב. ואם א״א לעמוד על אומדן דעתו של אב יהבינן לה עישור נכסים דמשתכחי השתא בשעת נשואיה ממקרקעי. אבל ממטלטלי אין לה עישור. ואיכא למ״ד דבזמן הזה ממטלטלי נמי אית לה עישור. ואם נישאת ולא תבעה מן היורשים, תובעת לאחר שנישאת, ולא אמרינן אחולי אחלה גבייהו. ודוקא כשהיתה ניזונית מנכסי אביה, אבל אם פסקו היורשים מלתת לה מזונות [אחולי אחלה אלא אם כן מחתה]. ואם היתה בוגרת שאין לה מזונות ועמדה ונישאת ולא תבעה מה שראוי לה לנדוניתה מנכסי אביה אחולי אחלה גבי יורשים ואינה יכולה לתבוע עוד, ואפילו היתה ניזונת מנכסיהם: