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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 8 Mishnah 7

עירובין פרק ח׳ משנה ז׳


With regard to a water channel that passes through a courtyard, the residents may not draw water from it on Shabbat, unless they erected for it a partition ten handbreadths high at the entrance and at the exit of the courtyard. Rabbi Yehuda says: There is no need for a special partition, as the wall that runs on top of it, i.e., the courtyard wall, is considered as a partition. Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving a water channel that passed through the courtyards of the town of Avel, from which the residents would draw water from it on Shabbat by the authority of the Elders, relying on the courtyard wall suspended above it. They said to him: It is due to the fact that channel was not of the size that requires a partition, i.e., it was less than ten handbreadths deep or less than ten handbreadths wide, it was permitted to draw water from it even without a partition.

אַמַּת הַמַּיִם שֶׁהִיא עוֹבֶרֶת בֶּחָצֵר, אֵין מְמַלְּאִין הֵימֶנָּה בְשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשׂוּ לָהּ מְחִצָּה גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים בַּכְּנִיסָה וּבַיְצִיאָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כֹּתֶל שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ תִּדּוֹן מִשּׁוּם מְחִצָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַעֲשֶׂה בָאַמָּה שֶׁל אָבֵל שֶׁהָיוּ מְמַלְּאִין מִמֶּנָּה עַל פִּי זְקֵנִים בְּשַׁבָּת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בָהּ כַּשִּׁעוּר:


אמת המים – even in the private domain, it is a Karmelit (i.e., an intermediate domain between a private domain and a public domain, established by the Sages. The Sages extended the prohibition against carrying on Shabbat from a private domain to a public domain or carerying within the public domain to include certain areas which resemble a public domain. Any open area larger than four square handbreadths that is not a public thoroughfare is in the category of a Karmelit, i.e., fields, seas, rivers, alleyways and lanes. On Shabbat it is prohibited to caerry four cubits within a karmelit or to transfer from a private or public domain to a karmelit and vice versa).

עשו לה מחיצה – with the rim over the face of its width which is recognized that it was made for the water.

מעשה באמה של אבל – the name of a city, that would pass within the courtyards and they would fill from it in the courtyards for the partitions of the wall of the courtyard that were suspended upon it were beneficial. Bug Rabbi Yehuda, according to his reasoning who argued also regarding a cistern, but the Halakha is not according to him.

שלא היה בה שיעור – A Karmelit, that was not ten [handbreadths] deep or was not four [handbreadths] wide, where the waters are not made into a domain into themselves to be considered a Karmelit unless it is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] wide. If they made it at the entrance but not at the exit, it does not benefit at all, for it connected to the water that is outside of the courtyard in its departure, and it all becomes a Karmelit; [but, if they made it – (i.e., the partition) at the exit but not at the entrance it also does not benefit, for it is connected to the water that is above outside of this courtyard. But if they made it at its entrance and at its exit, it benefits, that it appears] as if they begin in this courtyard.

אמת המים. אפילו ברשות היחיד כרמלית היא:

עשו לה מחיצה. בתוך אוגנה על פני רחבה שהוא ניכר שבשביל המים נעשית:

באמה של אבל. שם העיר, והיתה עוברת בתוך החצרות וממלאין ממנה בחצרות דמהניא לה מחיצות כותל החצר התלויות עליה. ור״י לטעמיה דפליג נמי אבור, ואין הלכה כמותו:

שלא היה בה שיעור. כרמלית, שלא היה עמוק עשרה או לא היה רחב ד׳, שאין המים נעשין רשות לעצמן להחשב כרמלית אא״כ עמוק עשרה ורחב ד׳. עשו לה בכניסה ולא ביציאה לא מהני מידי דהא מחוברת למים שחוץ לחצר ביציאתו ונעשית הכל כרמלית [עשו לה ביציאה ולא בכניסה נמי לא מהני דהא מחוברת למים שלמעלה חוץ לחצר זו. אבל עשו לה בכניסה וביציאה מהני, שנראה] כאילו מתחילין בחצר זו: