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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 3 Mishnah 5

עירובין פרק ג׳ משנה ה׳


A person may make a condition with regard to his eiruv of Shabbat borders. In other words, he need not decide in advance in which direction his eiruv should take effect. For example, he may deposit an eiruv on each of two opposite sides of his town, and say: If gentiles come from the east, my eiruv is in the west, so that I can escape in that direction; and if they come from the west, my eiruv is in the east. If they come from here and from there, i.e., from both directions, I will go wherever I wish, and my eiruv will retroactively take effect in that direction; and if they do not come at all, neither from here nor from there, I will be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town and give up both eiruvin that I deposited, leaving me with two thousand cubits in all directions from the town. Similarly, one may say: If a Sage comes from the east and he is spending Shabbat beyond the boundaries of my town, my eiruv is in the east, so that I may go out to greet him there; and if he comes from the west, my eiruv is in the west. If one Sage comes from here, and another Sage comes from there, I will go wherever I wish; and if no Sage comes, neither from here nor from there, I will be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. Rabbi Yehuda says: If one of the Sages coming from opposite directions was his teacher, he may go only to his teacher, as it is assumed that was his original intention. And if they were both his teachers, so that there is no reason to suppose that he preferred one over the other, he may go wherever he wishes.

מַתְנֶה אָדָם עַל עֵרוּבוֹ וְאוֹמֵר, אִם בָּאוּ גוֹיִים מִן הַמִּזְרָח, עֵרוּבִי לַמַּעֲרָב. מִן הַמַּעֲרָב, עֵרוּבִי לַמִּזְרָח. אִם בָּאוּ מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן, לִמְקוֹם שֶׁאֶרְצֶה אֵלֵךְ. לֹא בָאוּ לֹא מִכָּאן וְלֹא מִכָּאן, הֲרֵינִי כִבְנֵי עִירִי. אִם בָּא חָכָם מִן הַמִּזְרָח, עֵרוּבִי לַמִּזְרָח. מִן הַמַּעֲרָב, עֵרוּבִי לַמַּעֲרָב. בָּא לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, לִמְקוֹם שֶׁאֶרְצֶה אֵלֵךְ. לֹא לְכָאן וְלֹא לְכָאן, הֲרֵינִי כִבְנֵי עִירִי. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן רַבּוֹ, הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל רַבּוֹ, וְאִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם רַבּוֹתָיו, לִמְקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יֵלֵךְ:


מתנה אדם על עירובו – he places two Eruvin, one at the end of two-thousand cubits to the east of his house and one at the end of two-thousand cubits to the west of his house, and he states: “If idolaters came to the east and I need to free from before them, I will acquire for myself My Eruv that is in the west and my house will be for me four-thousand cubits. But even though that they didn’t come until the morrow, we state that there is a retrospective designation (i.e., literally, a choice), that he acquired for himself an Eruv in the other direction at twilight.

הריני כבני עירי – two-thousand [cubits] from my city in every direction and I do not need to profit from here and to lose from there.

אם בא חכם למזרח – outside of the Sabbath limit of my city and I want to learn from his mouth, and now I don’t know to which side he will come, and on the morrow I will here from people that come from there that it is to here near the Eruv.

רבי יהודה אומר – if they came from here and from there, and one of them was his Rabbi/Teacher, he should go to his Rabbi/Teacher, and not towards the other, for we hold that with a creature, that at the time of acquisition of the Eruv at twilight, his intention is to acquire for himself that Eruv that is on the side of his Rabbi/Teacher. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Yehuda, for sometimes it is more enjoyable for a person to be with his friends more than his Rabbi/Teacher.

מתנה אדם על עירובו. מניח שני עירובין אחד לסוף אלפים למזרח ביתו ואחד לסוף אלפים למערב ביתו, ואומר אם באו עובדי כוכבים למזרח וצריך אני לברוח מפניהם יקנה לי עירובי שבמערב ויהיו לי למערב ביתי ד׳ אלפים אמה. ואע״ג דלא אתו עד למחר, אמרינן יש ברירה דבין השמשות קנה ליה עירובא דאידך גיסא:

הריני כבני עירי. אלפים מעירי לכל רוח ואיני צריך להשתכר לכאן ולהפסיד מכאן:

אם בא חכם למזרח. חוץ לתחום עירי ורוצה אני ללמוד מפיו, ועכשיו איני יודע לאיזה צד יבא ולמחר אשמע מבני אדם הבאים משם לכאן ע״י עירוב:

רבי יהודה אומר. אם באו מכאן ומכאן, ואחד מהם רבו, ילך אצל רבו ולא אצל האחר דקים לן בגויה דבשעת קניית עירוב בין השמשות דעתיה דלקני ליה ההוא עירוב דלצד רביה. ואין הלכה כר״י, דזמנין דניחא ליה לאינש בחבריה טפי מרביה: