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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 3 Mishnah 4

עירובין פרק ג׳ משנה ד׳


If one’s eiruv rolled beyond the Shabbat limit, and he no longer has access to his eiruv since he may not go beyond his limit, or if a pile of stones fell on it, or if it was burnt, or if the eiruv was teruma and it became ritually impure; if any of these occurrences took place while it was still day, prior to the onset of Shabbat, it is not a valid eiruv, since one did not have an eiruv at twilight, which is the time one’s Shabbat residence is established. However, if any of these occurred after dark, when it was already Shabbat, it is a valid eiruv, as it was intact and accessible at the time one’s Shabbat residence is determined. If the matter is in doubt, i.e., if he does not know when one of the aforementioned incidents occurred, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda say: This person is in the position of both a donkey driver, who must prod the animal from behind, and a camel driver, who must lead the animal from the front, i.e., he is a person who is pulled in two opposite directions. Due to the uncertainty concerning his Shabbat border, he must act stringently, as though his resting place were both in his town and at the location where he placed the eiruv. He must restrict his Shabbat movement to those areas that are within two thousand cubits of both locations. Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon disagree and say: An eiruv whose validity is in doubt is nevertheless valid. Rav Yosei said: The Sage Avtolemos testified in the name of five Elders that an eiruv whose validity is in doubt is valid.

נִתְגַּלְגֵּל חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וְנָפַל עָלָיו גַּל, אוֹ נִשְׂרַף, אוֹ תְרוּמָה וְנִטְמֵאת, מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב, מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה, הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. אִם סָפֵק, רַבִּי מֵאִיר וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמְרִים, הֲרֵי זֶה חַמָּר גַּמָּל. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, סְפֵק עֵרוּב, כָּשֵׁר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אַבְטוֹלְמוֹס הֵעִיד מִשּׁוּם חֲמִשָּׁה זְקֵנִים עַל סְפֵק עֵרוּב שֶׁכָּשֵׁר:


נתגלגל חוץ לתחום אינו עירוב – since there is someone from his household who dwells there until his Eruv is more than two-thousand cubits [away], he is not able to go and to measure it. And this is a case where it rolled two cubits outside the two-thousand cubits, for every person has four cubits from the place of his Eruv, two cubits from the eastern side of his Eruv and two cubits from the western side.

נפל עליו גל – and it is he who needs a hoe or a pick-axe to get it out/remove it (see Talmud Eruvin 77b), which is a forbidden Sabbath creative labor but not a rabbinic decree to enhance the character of Shabbat as a day of rest.

תרומה ונטמאת – for now it is not fit, neither for himself nor for another person, but the Tanna/teacher needed to inform us that if it rolled outside the Sabbath limit, or a heap of stones fell upon it, for had he informed us [only] that it rolled [outside the Sabbath limit], because there isn’t anyone with it, for it is in one place and his Eruv is in another place, but if a heap of stones fell upon it, where there is another with it, I would say that it is an Eruv. But if we were only informed [only] about a heap of stones that fell upon it and he is not able to take it other than with the Sabbath labor of a hoe or a pick-axe, but if it rolled, where it is possible that a wind blows and returns it within the Sabbath limit, I might say that is should be an Eruv, it comes to tell you [that this is not the case]. And the Tanna/teacher taught, “or it was burned”, to inform you of the power [of the opinion] of Rabbi Yossi (who quotes the testimony at the end of the Mishnah of Avtulmos regarding a matter of doubt concerning an Eruv) for even though there isn’t in the world because of a doubt that it isn’t forbidden. And the Tanna/teacher taught “heave-offering that was defiled,” to inform you of the the power of Rabbi Meir, for even though that there is such in the world, and one can say, that he set it up at twilight based upon the presumption of prior to that and that it was ritually pure, even so we don’t state a presumption for a leniency.

משחשיכה הרי זה עירוב – for after he acquired it at twilight, we don’t suspect him if it was lost.

הרי זה חמר גמל – for we are in doubt if he acquired the Eruv and here would be his house and from here he has two-thousand cubits in every direction that are from the border of his house and further on, or perhaps, he did not acquire the Eruv and from his house, he has two-thousand [cubits] in every direction and he didn’t acquire anything to the border of his Eruv, and as a result of this doubt, he is forbidden to go [anywhere] other than two thousand cubits that are between his house and the Eruv, for whichever way you turn, in those he is permitted, but not in the two-thousand [cubits] that are from his Eruv and beyond, for perhaps he did not acquire the Eruv. But not also from his house and onwards, for perhaps he acquired the Eruv. It is found that this pulls him to here and that pulls him to there, like a person who is driving a donkey or a camel, that the donkey walks before him and this person leads him or the camel from behind him, and he pulls it and he needs to turn before him or in back of him.

רבי יוסי ר' שמעון אומרים ספק העירוב כשר – for we stated establish the Eruv on its presumption, for when he placed it, he was within the Sabbath limit, and he was ritually pure, and there was no pile of stones upon him, there his Eruv was an Eruv, and such is the Halakha.

נתגלגל חוץ לתחום אינו עירוב. הואיל ויש מביתו שהוא לן שם עד עירובו יותר מאלפים אמה לא מצי למיזל ולמשקליה. והוא שנתגלגל שתי אמות חוץ לאלפים אמה שכל אדם יש לו ארבע אמות ממקום עירובו, שתי אמות מצד מזרחו של עירוב ושתי אמות מצד מערבו:

נפל עליו גל. והוא דבעי מרא וחצינא לפנוייה, דהויא מלאכה ולא שבות:

תרומה ונטמאת. דהשתא לא חזיא לא לדידיה ולא לאחריני. ואצטריך תנא לאשמעינן נתגלגל חוץ לתחום ונפל עליו גל, דאי אשמעינן נתגלגל, משום דליתיה גביה הוי הוא במקום אחד ועירובו במקום אחר, אבל נפל עליו גל דאיתיה גביה אימא להוי עירוב. ואי אשמעינן נפל עליו גל דלא מצי שקיל ליה אלא במלאכה במרא וחצינא. אבל נתגלגל דאפשר דנשיב זיקא ומהדר ליה לתוך התחום אימא ליהוי עירוב קמ״ל. ותנא נשרף להודיעך כחו דרבי יוסי דאע״ג דאינו בעולם משום ספק לא מתסר. ותנא תרומה שנטמאת להודיעך כחו דר״מ דאע״ג דישנו בעולם וי״ל העמידנה בין השמשות על חזקתה של קודם לכן וטהורה היתה אפ״ה, לא אמרינן חזקה לקולא:

משחשיכה הרי זה עירוב. דלאחר שקנה בין השמשות אין חוששין לו אם נאבד:

הרי זה חמר גמל. דמספקא לן אי קנה ליה עירוב והכא הויא ביתו ומהכא יש לו אלפים לכל רוח והפסיד אלפים שמעבר ביתו והלאה, או שמא לא קנה עירוב ומביתו יש לו אלפים לכל רוח ולא קנה לעבר עירובו כלום, ומחמת ספק זה נאסר ללכת אלא אלפים אמה שבין ביתו לעירוב, דממה נפשך בהנך משתרי, אבל באלפים דמעירובו ואילך לא, דילמא לא קנה עירוב. ומביתו ואילך נמי לא, דילמא קנה עירוב. נמצא זה מושכו לכאן וזה מושכו לכאן כאדם המנהיג חמור וגמל שהחמור הולך לפניו וזה מנהיגו והגמל מאחוריו והוא מושכו וצריך לפנות לפניו ולאחריו:

רבי יוסי ור׳ שמעון אומרים ספק העירוב כשר. דאמרינן העמד עירוב על חזקתו, וכשהניחו היה בתוך התחום והיה טהור ולא היה עליו גל לפיכך עירובו עירוב וכן הלכה: