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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 2 Mishnah 5

בבא מציעא פרק ב׳ משנה ה׳


This mishna is an excerpt from a halakhic midrash concerning lost items, based on the verse: “You shall not see your brother’s ox or his sheep wandering, and disregard them; you shall return them to your brother…And so shall you do with his donkey; and so shall you do with his garment; and so shall you do with every lost item of your brother, which shall be lost from him, and you have found it; you may not disregard it” (Deuteronomy 22:1, 3). The garment was also included in the generalization that one must return all of these items. And why did it emerge from the generalization that is should be specified? To draw an analogy to it and to say to you: What is notable about a garment? It is notable in that there are distinguishing marks concerning it and it has claimants asserting ownership, and its finder is obligated to proclaim his find. So too with regard to any item concerning which there are distinguishing marks and it has claimants asserting ownership, its finder is obligated to proclaim his find.

אַף הַשִּׂמְלָה הָיְתָה בִכְלָל כָּל אֵלֶּה. לָמָּה יָצָאת. לְהָקִּישׁ אֵלֶיהָ, לוֹמַר לְךָ, מַה שִּׂמְלָה מְיֻחֶדֶת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לָהּ תּוֹבְעִים, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לוֹ תוֹבְעִים, חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז:


In the general rule of all of these. In the general category of "All the lost items of your brother".

Why was it specified. "And thus shall you do to his garment".

Just as a garment is special. An unspecified garment has a marker, and all garments have an owner that is claiming it, since it was made by someone and didn't come from nowhere.

So too anything that has claimants. This is to exclude something that was despaired upon. And despair is when you hear him say "Woe to my loss of purse".

בכלל כל אלה. בכלל כל אבדת אחיך:

ולמה יצאת. וכן תעשה לשמלתו:

מה שמלה מיוחדת. סתם שמלה יש בה סימן, וכל שמלה יש לה בעלים תובעים אותה, שנעשית בידי אדם ולא באת מן ההפקר:

אף כל שיש לו תובעים. למעוטי מידי דמייאש. ויאוש הוא, דשמעיניה דאמר וי ליה לחסרון כיס: