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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 14 Mishnah 10

זבחים פרק י"ד משנה י׳


And these are the sacrificial items that are sacrificed only in the Tabernacle even when private altars are permitted: Sacrificial animals that were presumed to be consecrated for sacrifice in the Tabernacle. Therefore, communal offerings are sacrificed in the Tabernacle, but offerings of an individual may be sacrificed on a private altar. In addition, with regard to offerings of an individual that were consecrated expressly for sacrifice in the Tabernacle, one must sacrifice them in the Tabernacle. But if he sacrificed them on a private altar, he is exempt. And what is the difference between the private altar of an individual and the public altar at the site of the Tabernacle when it was located in Gilgal, Nov, and Gibeon? It is that on a private altar there is no placing of hands on the head of an offering, no slaughter in the north, no placement of blood around all sides of the altar in offerings for which this is required, no waving of meal offerings, and no bringing of meal offerings to the corner of the altar prior to removal of the handful. Rabbi Yehuda says: There is no meal offering sacrificed on an altar outside the Temple. And requiring a member of the priesthood to perform the sacrificial rites, the priestly service vestments, the service vessels, the pleasing aroma to God, the partition for the blood, i.e., the red line dividing the upper and lower halves of the altar, and the priest’s washing of hands and feet before his service all do not apply to sacrifice on private altars, as the service there need not be performed by priests nor follow all the protocols of the Temple service. But the intent to sacrifice or partake of the offering beyond its designated time, which renders the offering piggul; the halakha of portions of the offering left over [notar] beyond the time it may be eaten; and the prohibition against eating consecrated meat while ritually impure are equal in this, a private altar, and that, a public altar.

אֵלּוּ קָדָשִׁים קְרֵבִים בַּמִּשְׁכָּן. קָדָשִׁים שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ לַמִּשְׁכָּן, קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר, קְרֵבִין בַּמִּשְׁכָּן. וְקָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד, בְּבָמָה. קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ לַמִּשְׁכָּן, יִקְרְבוּ בַמִּשְׁכָּן. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָן בְּבָמָה, פָּטוּר. מַה בֵּין בָּמַת יָחִיד לְבָמַת צִבּוּר, סְמִיכָה, וּשְׁחִיטַת צָפוֹן, וּמַתַּן סָבִיב, וּתְנוּפָה, וְהַגָּשָׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין מִנְחָה בְבָמָה. וְכִהוּן, וּבִגְדֵי שָׁרֵת, וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת, וְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ, וּמְחִצָּה בַדָּמִים, וּרְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלָיִם. אֲבָל הַזְּמָן, וְהַנּוֹתָר, וְהַטָּמֵא, שָׁוִים בָּזֶה וּבָזֶה:


ואלו קדשים קרבין במשכן – as for example at the time that Gilgal, Nov and Givon was where the Tabernacle was and the improvised altars were permitted. These Holy Things needed to be offered in the Tabernacle but not at an improvised altar.

קדשים – those undefined/not explicitly stated things were sanctified for the Tabernacle, and what were they – the community sacrifices.

קרבנות יחיד – that were undefined for the improvised altars.

קרבנות יחיד שהוקדשו למשכן – that he specified at the time of their sanctification on the conidition to offer them to the Tabernacle.

ואם הקריבן בבמה פטור – from warning and from punishment, for the improvised altars were permitted. But however, it is prohibited to change, as it is written (Deuteronomy 23:24): “You must fulfill what has crossed your lips [and perform what you have voluntarily vowed to the LORD your God, having made the promise with your own mouth].”

במות צבור – Gilgal and Nob and Givon.

סמיכה – as it is written (Leviticus 1:2-3): “[for acceptance in his behalf] before the LORD. He shall lay his hand [upon the head of the burnt offering],” for there os no laying of his hand on an improvised altar.

שחיטת צפון – as it is written (Leviticus 1:11): “[It shall be slaughtered] before the LORD on the north side of the altar,” but there is no “north side” in an improvised altar.

ומתן סביב – two gifts which are four, as it is written regarding them (Exodus 29:20): “and dash the rest of the blood against every side of the altar round about,” but not on an improvised altar.

תנופה – as it is written ((Leviticus 7:30; 10:15; 14:12 and other places) “as an elevation offering before the LORD,” and there is no waving on an improvised altar.

והגישה – as it is written (Leviticus 2:8): “[it shall be brought to the priest] who shall take it up to the altar,” and there is no bringing it with an improvised altar.

מנחה בבמה – for Scripture states (Leviticus 17:5): “This is in order that the Israelites may bring the sacrifices which they have been making in the open – that they may bring them before the LORD, to the priest, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and offer them as sacrifices of well-being to the LORD,” that sacrifices are brought on an improvised altar but not meal-offerings.

כיהון – as it is written (Leviticus 17:6): “that the priest may dash the blood against the altar of the LORD,” the altar requires a Kohen but an improvised altar does not require a Kohen.

ובגדי שרת – for since there is no need for a Kohen, there is no place for wearing garments of ministry, that regarding the wearing garments of ministry it is written (Exodus 29:30): “[He among his sons] who becomes priest [in his stead, who enters the Tent of Meeting to officiate within the sanctuary,] shall wear them seven days.”

וכלי שרת – and regarding the utensils of ministry, it is written (Exodus 28:43): [They shall be worn by Aaron and his sons when they enter the Tent of Meeting or when they approach the altar] to officiate in the sanctuary,”and not an an improvised altar.

וריח ניחוח – limbs that had been roasted and offered on the altar, they don’t have with them “of pleasing odor to the LORD”, and specifically on the altar, as it is written (Leviticus 1:13): “It is burnt offering, a gift, of pleasing odor to the LORD.,” but on an improvised altar, even if he roasted them and offered them on the altar there is nothing in this.

ומחיצת דמים – the red line to distinguish between the lower blood and the upper blod, but there is no red line in the improvised altar, as it is written (Exodus 27:5):”[Set the mesh below, under the ledge of the altar,] so that it extends to the middle of the altar,” but not in an improvised altar.

רחוץ ידים ורגלים – as it is written (Exodus 30:20): “When they enter the Tent of Meeting they wash with water,” but not in an improvised altar.

הזמן – if he intended regarding the sacrifice to consume it outside of I ts appropriate time.

והטמא – even though the foreigner (i.e., non-Kohen) is fit to offer it on an improvised altar, an impure person does not offer on an improvised altar.

ואלו קדשים קרבים במשכן. כגון בזמן הגלגל ונוב וגבעון שהיה שם משכן והיו הבמות מותרות. אלו קדשים צריכין להקריבן במשכן ולא בבמה:

קדשים. שסתמן הוקדשו במשכן, ומאי ניהו קרבנות צבור:

קרבנות יחיד. סתמן לבמה:

קרבנות יחיד שהוקדששו למשכן. שפירש בשעת הקדשן על מנת להקריבן למשכן:

ואם הקריבן בבמה פטור. מאזהרה ומעונש, שהרי הותרו הבמות. ומיהו אסור לשנות, דכתיב (דברים כ״ג:כ״ד) מוצא שפתיך תשמור ועשית:

במות צבור. גלגל ונוב וגבעון:

סמיכה. דכתיב לפני ה׳ וסמך, שאין סמיכה בבמה:

שחיטת צפון. דכתיב (ויקרא א׳:י״א) צפונה לפני ה׳, ואין צפון בבמה:

ומתן סביב. שתי מתנות שהן ארבע. דכתיב בהו (שמות כ״ט:כ׳) את הדם על המזבח סביב, ולא בבמה:

תנופה. דכתיב תנופה לפני ה׳, ואין תנופה בבמה:

והג. שה. דכתיב (ויקרא ב׳:ח׳) והגישה אל המזבח, ואין הגשה בבמה:

אין מנחה בבמה. דזבחים אמר קרא בבמה ולא מנחות:

כיהון. דכתיב (שם י״ד) וזרק הכהן את הדם על המזבח, מזבח צריך כהן ואין במה צריכה כהן:

ובגדי שרת. דכיון דאין צריך כהן אין כאן מקום לבגדי שרת, דבבגדי שרת כתיב (שם ו׳) ילבשם הכהן:

וכלי שרת. דבכלי שרת כתיב (שמות כ״ח) לשרת בקדש, ולא בבמה:

וריח ניחוח. אברים שצלאן והעלן, אין בהן משום ריח ניחוח. ודוקא במזבח דכתיב ריח ניחוח לה׳, אבל בבמה אפילו צלאן והעלן אין בכך כלום:

ומחיצת דמים. חוט הסיקרא להבדיל בין דמים התחתונים לדמים העליונים. ואין חוט הסקרא בבמה דכתיב (שם כ״ו) והיתה הרשת עד חצי המזבח, ולא בבמה:

רחוץ ידים ורגלים. דכתיב (שם ל׳) בבואם אל אהל מועד ירחצו מים, ולא בבמה:

הזמן. אם חשב על הקרבן לאכלו חוץ לזמנו:

והטמא. אע״פ שזר כשר להקריב בבמה, אין טמא מקריב בבמה: