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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 10 Mishnah 5

זבחים פרק י׳ משנה ה׳


All the sin offerings mandated by the Torah take precedence over the guilt offerings, as explained in the previous mishna (89a), except for the guilt offering of a leper, because it comes to render one fit. One who has been cured of leprosy must undergo a process through which he is rendered ritually pure before coming into contact with consecrated items. Although he must also bring a sin offering, his guilt offering is more central to that process of purification and therefore it takes precedence over the sin offering. All the guilt offerings mandated by the Torah come as rams in their second year, and come worth two silver shekels, except for the guilt offering of a nazirite and the guilt offering of a leper, as they come from sheep in their first year, and do not need to come worth two silver shekels, as they have no fixed value.

כָּל הַחַטָּאוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, קוֹדְמוֹת לָאֲשָׁמוֹת, חוּץ מֵאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָא עַל יְדֵי הֶכְשֵׁר. כָּל הָאֲשָׁמוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה בָּאִין בְּנֵי שְׁתַּיִם וּבָאִין בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים, חוּץ מֵאֲשַׁם נָזִיר וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, שֶׁהֵן בָּאִין בְּנֵי שְׁנָתָן וְאֵינָן בָּאִין בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים:


קודמות לאשמות – if he was liable for a sin-offering and a guilt-offering and brings them the sin-offering precedes, as it is taught in the Mishnah (Tractate Zevakhim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 2): “that its blood is placed on the four on the four corners [of an altar] and on the foundation.”

מפני שהוא בא להכשיר – [because it renders fit] the leper to Holy Things and to enter into the Sanctuary, therefore, it is of importance/value regarding him, that his spiritual purity is dependent upon it.

ובאים בכסף שקלים – as it is written (Leviticus 5:15): “[When a person commits a trespass, being unwittingly remiss about any of the LORD’s sacred tings, he shall bring as his penalty to the LORD a ram without blemish from the flock;] convertible into payment in silver by the sanctuary weight, [as a reparation/guilt offering],” as a guilt-offering for misuse of consecrated articles (i.e., restoring its value to the Temple, pay an additional fifth, and bringing this offering) and it brings an uncertain guilt-offering (i.e., brought by one who is uncertain as to whether he committed a sin that required a sin-offering).and a guilt-offering for robbery (i.e., when he denies that he owes someone money, takes a false oath to support his claim, and later admits his guilt. To atone for his misdeed, he returns the money, pays the wronged party an additional fifth of the sum, and sacrifices this offering) as an analogy [with the words]"ערכך" "ערכך" (see Leviticus 5:15: “convertible/כערכך into payment in silver by the sanctuary weight” and Leviticus 5:18): “”He shall bring to the priest a ram without blemish from the flock, or the equivalent/בערכך, as a reparation – i.e., guilt – offering.”) and the guilt-offering for a handmaiden designated to become the wife of one selected by her master/שפחה חרופה we derive [in an analogy] by "איל" "איל" (i.e., the ram of reparation offering – as in Leviticus 19:21: “But he must bring to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, as his reparation offering to the LORD a ram/איל of reparation offering” and Leviticus 5:15: “he shall bring as his penalty to the LORD a ram/איל without blemish from the flock.”).

חוץ מאשם נזיר ואשם מצורע – as it is written concerning them (Numbers 7:14): “[As his offering to the LORD he shall present:] one male lamb in its first year, without blemish, for a burnt offering; one ewe lamb in its first year, without blemish, for a purification offering; one ram without blemish for an offering of well-being.” For since a ram of two years of age is for two Sela, a lamb one year old is not for two Sela.

קודמות לאשמות. אם היה מחוייב חטאת ואשם ומביאן, חטאת קודמת. כדתנן שדמה נתן על ארבע קרנות ועל היסוד:

מפני שהוא בא להכשיר. את המצורע לקדשים ולביאת מקדש. הלכך חשיבותא הוא לגביה, שהטהרה תלויה בו:

ובאים בכסף שקלים. דכתיב (ויקרא ה׳:ט״ו) בערכך כסף שקלים, באשם מעילות, ואתי אשם תלוי ואשם גזילות בגזירה שוה בערכך בערכך, ואשם שפחה חרופה גמר באיל איל:

חוץ מאשם נזיר ואשם מצורע. דכתיב בהו (במדבר ו׳:י״ב) כבש בן שנתו. ומדאיל בן שתי שנים בשתי סלעים, כבש בן שנה לאו בשתי סלעים הוא: