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Mishnayos Yevamos Perek 12 Mishnah 6

יבמות פרק י"ב משנה ו׳


The mitzva of ḥalitza is performed as follows: He and his yevama come to the court, and the scholars of the court give him advice appropriate for him, whether to enter levirate marriage or to perform ḥalitza, as it is stated: “And the Elders of his city shall call him and speak to him” (Deuteronomy 25:8). If they decide to perform ḥalitza, she says: “My brother-in-law refused to establish a name for his brother in Israel, he did not wish to consummate the levirate marriage” (Deuteronomy 25:7), and afterward he says: “I do not wish to take her” (Deuteronomy 25:8). And they would say these statements in the sacred Hebrew language and not in any other language. Afterward, the shoe is removed and she spits before him, as is written: “His yevama shall approach him, before the Elders, and remove his shoe from on his foot and spit before him” (Deuteronomy 25:9), which indicates that this spittle must be visible to the judges. “And she shall respond and say: So shall it be done to the man who does not build his brother’s house” (Deuteronomy 25:9). Up until this point the judges would prompt the parties to recite the text that they are required to say. And when Rabbi Hyrkanus once prompted the participants in ḥalitza under the ela tree in the village of Eitam, he prompted them to finish reciting the whole Torah passage, after which they established the custom of completing the whole Torah passage. Therefore, they continue and say the following verse: “And his name shall be called in Israel: The house of he who had his shoe removed” (Deuteronomy 25:10). This mitzva of saying: The house of he who had his shoe removed, applies to the judges, but not to the students, i.e., the students of the judges and other onlookers who are present. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is a mitzva upon all those present to say: He who had his shoe removed.

מִצְוַת חֲלִיצָה. בָּא הוּא וִיבִמְתּוֹ לְבֵית דִּין, וְהֵן מַשִּׂיאִין לוֹ עֵצָה הַהוֹגֶנֶת לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, (דברים כה) וְקָרְאוּ לוֹ זִקְנֵי עִירוֹ וְדִבְּרוּ אֵלָיו. וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת, מֵאֵן יְבָמִי לְהָקִים לְאָחִיו שֵׁם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, לֹא אָבָה יַבְּמִי. וְהוּא אוֹמֵר, לֹא חָפַצְתִּי לְקַחְתָּהּ. וּבִלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים. וְנִגְּשָׁה יְבִמְתּוֹ אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי הַזְּקֵנִים וְחָלְצָה נַעֲלוֹ מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ וְיָרְקָה בְּפָנָיו, רֹק הַנִּרְאֶה לַדַּיָּנִים. וְעָנְתָה וְאָמְרָה כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִבְנֶה אֶת בֵּית אָחִיו, עַד כָּאן הָיוּ מַקְרִין. וּכְשֶׁהִקְרָא רַבִּי הֻרְקְנוֹס תַּחַת הָאֵלָה בִּכְפַר עֵיטָם וְגָמַר אֶת כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, הֻחְזְקוּ לִהְיוֹת גּוֹמְרִין כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה. וְנִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּית חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל. מִצְוָה בַדַּיָּנִין, וְלֹא מִצְוָה בַתַּלְמִידִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִצְוָה עַל כָּל הָעוֹמְדִים שָׁם לוֹמַר, חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל, חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל, חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל:


עצה ההוגנת לו – if he is a young body and she is an elderly woman; he is an elderly man and she is a young girl, they say to him: “What are you doing with a young girl, what are you doing with an elderly woman – go to someone like yourself.”

קוראה – “My husband’s brother refuses [to establish a name in Israel for his brother]” (Deuteronomy 25:7) and he recites: “I do not want to marry her” (Deuteronomy 25:8). She removes his shoe and spits [in his face] and recites (Deuteronomy 25:9) “Thus shall be done [to the man who will not build up his brother’s house!].” And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Yehuda who stated that it is a Mitzvah for all who are standing there to state (Deuteronomy 25:10): “the family of the un-sandaled one,” “the family of the un-sandaled one,” “the family of the un-sandaled o

עצה ההוגנת לו. אם הוא ילד והיא זקנה, הוא זקן והיא ילדה, אומרים לו מה לך אצל ילדה מה לך אצל זקנה כלך אצל שכמותך:

קוראה מאן יבמי. וקורא, לא חפצתי לקחתה. חולצת ורוקקת וקוראה, ככה יעשה לאיש. והלכה כרבי יהודה דאמר מצוה על כל העומדים שם לומר חלוץ הנעל חלוץ הנעל חלוץ הנעל: