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Mishnayos Temurah Perek 6 Mishnah 1

תמורה פרק ו׳ משנה א׳


With regard to all animals whose sacrifice on the altar is prohibited, if they are intermingled with animals whose sacrifice is permitted, they prohibit the entire mixture of animals in any amount, regardless of the ratio of permitted to prohibited animals. These are the animals whose sacrifice is prohibited: An animal that copulated with a person, and an animal that was the object of bestiality, and the set-aside, and one that was worshipped, and an animal that was given as payment to a prostitute or as the price of a dog, or an animal crossbred from a mixture of diverse kinds, or an animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [tereifa], or an animal born by caesarean section. Which is the animal that is set-aside? It is an animal that is set aside for idol worship. The animal itself is prohibited, but that which is upon it, e.g., its jewelry and garments, is permitted to be sold in order to purchase an animal to be sacrificed. And which is the animal that was worshipped? It is any animal that a person worships as an object of idol worship. In this case, the sacrifice of both the animal itself and an animal purchased using the money from the sale of that which is upon it is prohibited. And the consumption of both this, the animal designated for idol worship, and that, the animal worshipped, is permitted.

כָּל הָאֲסוּרִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, אוֹסְרִים כָּל שֶׁהֵן. הָרוֹבֵעַ, וְהַנִּרְבָּע, וְהַמֻּקְצֶה, וְהַנֶּעֱבָד, וְאֶתְנָן, וּמְחִיר, וְהַכִּלְאַיִם, וְהַטְּרֵפָה, וְיוֹצֵא דֹפֶן. אֵיזֶה הוּא מֻקְצֶה. הַמֻּקְצֶה לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. הוּא אָסוּר, וּמַה שֶּׁעָלָיו מֻתָּר. אֵיזֶהוּ נֶעֱבָד. כֹּל שֶׁעוֹבְדִין אוֹתוֹ. הוּא וּמַה שֶּׁעָלָיו אָסוּר. זֶה וָזֶה מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה:


כל האסורים לגבי מזבח (all [animals] which are prohibited for the altar – that they are invalid for offering as a sacrifice. And you consider them and further.

אסורין בכל שהן (prohibit in any number at all [animals among which they are confused]) – and even if they were combined one in one-thousand, all of them are forbidden to the altar, if it was not known. And all of them are found that they are not known, except for the torn animal which is not found and is not known other that, as for example, the lion or the wolf attacked that are mixed with the vital organ perforated by a thorn.

הרובע והנרבע והמוקצה והנעבד – they are ineligible for the altar. As it states in Scripture (Leviticus 22:25): “for they are mutilated, they have a defect,” and it is taught in a Baraitha, every place where it states, “they are mutilated,” is none other than unchastity and idolatry. Unchastity, as it is written (Genesis 6:12): “for all flesh had corrupted its ways on earth.” Idolatry, as it is written (Deuteronomy 4:16): “not to act wickedly and make for yourselves a sculptured image [in any likeness whatever: the form of a man or a woman].” The one (i.e., animal) that has sexual relations with a human being and the one (i.e., animal) with whom a human being has sexual relations that is taught in our Mishnah, as for example that he had sex or has sexual relations with an animal with one witness or by the owners, and is not stoned in this, but they are disqualified from being a sacrifice.

מוקצה – an animal that was set aside for idolatry. And it is not disqualified for being offed up until they should do with it an act for the purposes of idolatry, as for example, that the [non-Jewish] priests served it if it was a bull or sheared it if it was a sheep.

ונעבד – it is not prohibited to derive benefit even though he worshipped it, for living creatures are not prohibited to derive benefit when we serve them, but they are disqualified to the altar.

ואתנן ומחיר (and the harlot’s hire and the price of a dog) – Scripture specifically disqualifies them (Deuteronomy 23:19): “You shall not bring the fee of a whore or the pay of a dog [into the house of the LORD your God in fulfillment of any vow, for both are abhorrent to the LORD your God].”

וכלאים – a he-goat that comes upon a ewe.

והטריפה – as it is written regarding tithes (Leviticus 27:32): “[All tithes of the herd or the flock] – of all that passes under the shepherd’s staff,” excluding the torn animal that does not pass [under the shepherd’s staff] and the sacrifice of the altar is derived from the tithe of cattle.

ויוצא דופן – that its mother was torn and they removed the fetus through the caesarian section, and we exclude it from Scripture as it is written (Leviticus 22:27): “[When an ox or a sheep or a goat] is born”, excluding through caesarian section.

הוא אסור – for the altar.

ומה שעליו מותר – for that is not worshipped.

הוא ומה שעליו אסור – it is prohibited for the altar, but is permitted even for eating, as it will be mentioned nearby. But what is upon it, the jewelry that is upon it are prohibited from deriving benefit for they were worshipped and they have on them the grasp of a human hand.

כל האסורין לגבי מזבח. שהן פסולים להקרבה. וקחשיב להו ואזיל:

אוסרין בכל שהן. ואפילו נתערבו אחד באלף כולן אסורים למזבח, אם אינו ניכר. וכולהו משכחת לה דאין ניכרים, חוץ מן הטריפה דלא משכחת לה שאינה ניכרת אלא כגון שנתערבה דרוסת הארי והזאב בנקובת הקוץ:

הרובע והנרבע והמוקצה והנעבד. פסולין למזבח. דאמר קרא (ויקרא כ״ב:כ״ה) כי משחתם בהם מום בם, ותניא, כל מקום שנאמר משחתם אינו אלא ערוה ועבודה זרה. ערוה, דכתיב (בראשית ו׳:י״ב) כי השחית כל בשר את דרכו. עבודה זרה, דכתיב (דבריפ ד׳) פן תשחיתון ועשיתם לכם פסל. ורובע ונרבע דתנן במתניתין, כגון דרובע או נרבע על פי עד אחד או על פי הבעלים, דאינה נסקלת בכך אבל פסולות הן לקרבן:

מוקצה. בהמה שהקצוה לעבודה זרה. ואינה פסולה להקרבה עד שיעשו בה מעשה לשם עבודה זרה, כגון שעבדו בו הכומרים אם הוא שור או גזזוהו אם הוא שה:

ונעבד. אינו אסור בהנאה אע״פ שעבדוהו, שאין בעלי חיים נאסרים בהנאה כשעובדים אותן, אבל נפסלים למזבח:

ואתנן ומחיר. בהדיא פסלינהו קרא (שם כ״ג) לא תביא אתנן זונה ומחיר כלב:

וכלאים. תיש הבא על הרחל:

והטריפה. דכתיב במעשר (ויקרא כ״ז:ל״ב) כל אשר יעבור תחת השבט, פרט לטריפה שאינה עוברת, וקרבן מזבח יליף ממעשר בהמה:

ויוצא דופן. שנקרעה אמו והוציאו העובר דרך הדופן. ומעטינן מקרא דכתיב (שם כ״ב) כי יולד, פרט ליוצא דופן:

הוא אסור. למזבח:

ומה שעליו מותר. דהא לא נעבד:

הוא ומה שעליו אסור. הוא אסור למזבח, ומותר אפילו באכילה, כדלקמן בסמוך. ומה שעליו, תכשיטים שעליו, אסורין בהנאה שהרי נעבדו ויש בהן תפיסת ידי אדם:

זה וזה. המוקצה והנעבד: