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Mishnayos Shekalim Perek 7 Mishnah 6

שקלים פרק ז׳ משנה ו׳


Rabbi Shimon said: The court instituted seven ordinances with regard to the financial aspects of offerings and consecrations. And this ordinance, namely, that the cost of the libations accompanying the sacrifice of a found animal is borne by the public, is one of them. These are the other ordinances: If a gentile sent his burnt-offering from abroad, outside Eretz Yisrael, and he sent with it money for the purchase of the libations that must accompany it, the libations are offered at his expense. And if the gentile did not cover the cost of the libations, it is a condition of the court that the libations are sacrificed at the public’s expense, with funds taken from the Temple treasury. And likewise, in the case of a convert who died without heirs and left animals that he had designated as offerings. If he has the libations, i.e., if he also had set aside libations or money for that purpose, the libations are sacrificed from his estate. And if he did not do so, the libations are sacrificed from public funds. And another ordinance: It is a condition of the court with regard to a High Priest who died, and a new High Priest had not yet been appointed in his place, that his meal-offering, i.e., the griddle-cake offering that the High Priest would bring each day from one-tenth of an ephah of flour, would be sacrificed from public funds. Rabbi Yehuda says: It was brought from the property of the High Priest’s heirs, i.e., his estate, and not from public funds. In any event, the offering was not brought as it would have been brought by the High Priest himself were he still alive, half in the morning and half in the evening, but rather it was sacrificed all at once, from a whole one-tenth of an ephah.

אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים הִתְקִינוּ בֵּית דִּין, וְזֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶן, נָכְרִי שֶׁשִּׁלַּח עוֹלָתוֹ מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וְשִׁלַּח עִמָּהּ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וְכֵן גֵּר שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ זְבָחִים, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וּתְנַאי בֵּית דִּין הוּא עַל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁמֵּת, שֶׁתְּהֵא מִנְחָתוֹ קְרֵבָה מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁל יוֹרְשִׁין. וּשְׁלֵמָה הָיְתָה קְרֵבָה:


שבעה דברים – that he considered for them and continuing.

נכרי ששלח עולתו – for we expound [the words] "איש איש"/”every person” which teaches that heathens make votive offerings and freewill offerings like Jews do.

שתהא מנחתו – one-tenth of an Ephah that the High Priest would offer each day, one-half of it in the morning and one-half of in the evening.

קריבה משל צבור – as it is written (Leviticus 6:11): [“Only the males among Aaron’s descendants may eat of it, as their due] for all time [throughout the ages from the LORD’s offerings by fire].” This law will be for eternity, meaning to say, from the community, from the sacred donations of the chamber.

רבי יהודה אומר משל יורשים – as it is written (Leviticus 6:15): “And so shall the priest, anointed from among his son to succeed him, [shall prepare it; it is the LORD’s – a law for all time – to be turned entirely into smoke],” and this implies that the Kohen that was anointed who died, succeeding him, one of his sons shall prepare it.

ושלימה היתה קריבה – when it comes from the community, according to Rabbi Shimon, or from the heirs, according to Rabbi Yehuda. A full tenth was offered and not a one-half tenth. Rabbi Shimon derives it from "כליל תקטר"/”to be turned entirely into smoke” (Leviticus 6:15), that he should not offer incense in halves but whole, when it comes from the community. But Rabbi Yehuda derives it as it is written (Leviticus 6:15): “from among his son to succeed him, prepare it,” that one of his sons will offer incense after his father dies, that is, the heirs will prepare it and not half of it, and the Halakha is according to Rabbi Yehuda that it comes from the heirs. But that our Mishnah states that the Jewish court instituted a condition, according to the words of Rabbi Shimon that it should come from the community. But it is not from the Torah – the Gemara (Jerusalem Talmud Shekalim 20b) explains that there were two enactments at first that from the Torah it was offered from the community, since it was written “ a law for all time” (Leviticus 6:15) as we have stated. Since we saw that the chamber was hurried, they enacted that it would be collected from the heirs. Since they saw that they were negligent with it, they established to be from the Torah, and it was found now to be offered from the community with the condition of the Jewish court that it would be established by the Torah.

שבעה דברים. וקחשיב להו ואזיל:

נכרי ששלח עולתו. דדרשינן איש איש, מלמד שהנכרים נודרים נדרים ונדבות כישראל:

שתהא מנחתו. עשירית האיפה שכהן גדול מקריב בכל יום מחציתה בבוקר ומחציתה בערב:

קריבה משל צבור. דכתיב (ויקרא ו׳:י״א) חק עולם, חק זה יהיה משל עולם כלומר משל צבור דהיינו מתרומת הלשכה:

רבי יהודה אומר משל יורשים. דכתיב (שם) והכהן המשיח תחתיו מבניו, והכי משמע, והכהן המשיח שמת, תחתיו אחד מבניו יעשה אותה:

ושלימה היתה קריבה. כשהיא באה משל צבור לר״ש או משל יורשים לרבי יהודה, עשרון שלם היתה קריבה ולא חצי עשרון. ר׳ שמעון מפיק ליה מכליל תקטר, שלא יקטירוה לחצאין אלא כולה כשהיא באה משל צבור. ורבי יהודה מפיק ליה מדכתיב מבניו יעשה אותה, כשהאחד מבניו מקריב לאחר שמת אביו דהיינו היורשים, יעשה אותה ולא חציה. והלכה כרבי יהודה שמשל יורשים היא באה. והא דתנן במתניתין דתנאי בית דין הוא לדברי ר׳ שמעון שתהא באה מן הצבור, ולא מן התורה, מפרש בגמרא דשתי תקנות הוו, בתחלה מדאורייתא קריבה משל צבור מדכתיב חק עולם כדאמרינן, כיון שראו דקא מדחקא לשכה התקינו דניגבו מיורשים, כיון דחזו דקא פשעו בה אוקמוה אדאורייתא. ונמצאת עכשיו קריבה מן הצבור בתנאי בית דין דאוקמוה אדאורייתא: