Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Shekalim Perek 1 Mishnah 7

שקלים פרק א׳ משנה ז׳


One who contributes a half-shekel on behalf of a poor person, on behalf of his neighbor, or on behalf of a resident of his city is exempt from the premium. The Sages did not obligate in the premium those who use their own money to fulfill the obligation of another. But if one loaned them a half-shekel, rather than paying it on their behalf, he is obligated to pay the premium. Since the recipients of the loan must repay the money, it is as though the half-shekel were paid from their property rather than the lender’s. Partnered brothers, who have fully divided among themselves their late father’s assets, and who, if they jointly pay a whole shekel from those assets to discharge both of their obligations, are obligated in the premium like any other two private individuals, are exempt from the animal tithe for the livestock they inherited. Since they have completely divided between them all inherited assets, they are considered purchasers of the livestock, and a purchaser is exempt from the animal tithe. But when they have not completely divided the assets, and they are therefore obligated in the animal tithe, as the livestock is considered in their father’s possession, they are exempt from the premium for their joint payment, as in the case of one who pays on behalf of another. And how much is a premium? A silver ma’a. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is only half a ma’a.

הַשּׁוֹקֵל עַל יְדֵי עָנִי, וְעַל יְדֵי שְׁכֵנוֹ, וְעַל יְדֵי בֶּן עִירוֹ, פָטוּר. וְאִם הִלְוָם חַיָּב. הָאַחִין וְהַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁחַיָּבִין בַּקָּלְבּוֹן, פְּטוּרִין מִמַּעֲשֵׂר בְּהֵמָה. וּכְשֶׁחַיָּבִין בְּמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, פְּטוּרִין מִן הַקָּלְבּוֹן. וְכַמָּה הוּא קָלְבּוֹן, מָעָה כֶּסֶף, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, חֵצִי:


השוקל ע"י עני – for a poor person

פטור – since he gives it to them as a gift.

האחין השותפין שחייבין בקלבון – brothers who are partners that split and came back and became partners again – are obligated for the surcharge like two people who gave Selaim.

פטורים ממעשר בהמה – all cattle that are born to them all the days of their partnership do not need to be tithed, for we expound in the [last] chapter of [Tractate] Bekhorot (see Chapter 9, Mishnah 3 – Talmud Bekhorot 56b) (Numbers 18:15): “]The first issue of the womb of every being, man or beast, that is offered to the LORD,[ shall be yours/יהיה לך;” – yours but not of a partnership, and we establish this verse with tithes, and even though that it is written with regard to first born.

וכשחייבים במעשר בהמה – that is when they didn’t divide it, then they are obligated for tithing, as we expound – that he is able, even if they didn’t purchase it as that which belongs to the estate (before division), as the inference teaches us, “it will be”/יהיה – in all cases (see Numbers 18:18).

פטורים מן הקלבון – for the money of their father stands in its legal status as it is like a father who gives for his sons and for or for his neighbors and is exempt.

מעה כסף – one twenty-fourth of Selah, and its weight is sixteen S’eorot.

חצי מעה – one forty-eighth and its weight is eight S’eorot, and the Halakha is according to the Sages.

השוקל ע״י עני. בשביל עני:

פטור. כיון שנותן להם במתנה:

האחין השותפין שחייבין בקלבון. אחים שהם שותפים שחלקו וחזרו ונשתתפו שאז הן חייבין בקלבון כשאר שני אנשים ששקלו סלעים:

פטורים ממעשר בהמה. כל הבהמות הנולדות להם כל ימי שותפותן אינן צריכין לעשרן, דדרשינן בפרק [בתרא] דבכורות, יהיה לך, ולא של שותפות, ומוקמינן להאי קרא במעשר ואע״ג דבבכור כתיב:

וכשחייבים במעשר בהמה. היינו כשלא חלקו שאז חייבים במעשר, כדדרשינן יכול אפילו קנו בתפוסת הבית, ת״ל יהיה מ״מ:

פטורים מן הקלבון. שממון אביהם בחזקתו עומד, והוי כאב ששוקל ע״י בניו וע״י שכניו דפטור:

מעה כסף. אחד מעשרים וארבעה בסלע, ומשקלה ששה עשר שעורות:

חצי מעה. אחד משמנה וארבעים, ומשקלה שמנה שעורות. והלכה כחכמים: