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Mishnayos Shabbos Perek 9 Mishnah 3

שבת פרק ט׳ משנה ג׳


The mishna continues to cite a series of unrelated halakhot based upon biblical allusions. From where is it derived that a woman who discharges semen even on the third day after relations is ritually impure, just like one who touches semen (see Leviticus 15:17)? Because the semen remains fit for insemination, it can transmit impurity, as it is stated prior to the revelation at Sinai: “And he said to the people, prepare yourselves for three days, do not approach a woman” (Exodus 19:15). This three-day separation period ensured that even a woman who discharged semen would be pure. The mishna cites another halakha based on a biblical allusion: From where is it derived that one may wash the circumcision on the third day, meaning the third day after the circumcision, even if it occurs on Shabbat? As it is stated: “And it came to pass on the third day when they were in pain” (Genesis 34:25). The pain of circumcision lasts at least three days, and as long as the child is in pain he is considered to be in danger. The mishna cites another halakha with an allusion in the Bible: From where is it derived that one ties a scarlet strip of wool to the head of the scapegoat that is dispatched to Azazel? As it is stated: “If your sins be like scarlet, they will become white like snow” (Isaiah 1:18). Since the goat is offered to atone for sins, red wool is tied to its horns.

מִנַּיִן לְפוֹלֶטֶת שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יט) הֱיוּ נְכוֹנִים לִשְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים. מִנַּיִן שֶׁמַּרְחִיצִין אֶת הַמִּילָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לד) וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיוֹתָם כֹּאֲבִים. מִנַּיִן שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית בְּרֹאשׁ שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה א) אִם יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ:


שהיא טמאה – for on the third day, her semen has not yet become decayed – and she is worthy to conceive and to have a fetus created from her and we call it semen – that is worthy of being sown.

לשלשה ימים – for Scripture was strict on those who were defiled by emissions at the Giving of the Torah, therefore, it separated them three days and did not concern itself if they would discharge afterwards on the forth day of separation that decays/is offensive and not worthy of being sown. And the Halakhic decision is that the a woman who discharges on the third day is ritually pure, and our Mishnah is a faulty version, and should teach: “From when does a woman who discharges semen on the third day that she is ritually pure, as it states (Exodus 19:15): “Be ready for the third day: [do not go near a woman].” And the three days that are mentioned in the Biblical verse is equivalent to the third day, for on the third day of separation, the Torah was given. Alternatively, it (i.e., our Mishnah) is not a faulty version but rather, it is [the Rabbis of Rabbi] Eleazar ben Azariah [who] hold that she who emits on the third day is impure, and the Halakha is not [like them].

מנין שמרחיצין וכו' – even in hot water that was heated on the Sabbath, for even on the third day, [the child] is in danger, and all the more so, on the first and second days, for hot water strengthens the body of the baby boy and heals him.

לשון של זהורית – like the language of a red wool that they would tie half on the head of the goat that was sent to Azazel and half on the precipice, and when the goat was pushed down, the strip would turn white and everyone knew that their sins were atoned for.

שהיא טמאה. דיום השלישי אכתי לא מסרחא שכבת זרע וראויה לקלוט ולהיות ולד נוצר ממנה, וקרינן בה שכבת זרע הראוי להזריע:

לשלשת ימים. דהקפיד הכתוב על טמאי קרי במתן תורה, לכך הפרישן שלשה ימים ולא חש אם יפליטו אח״כ ביום רביעי להפרשה, דמסריח ואינו ראוי להזריע. ופסק ההלכה שהפולטת ביום השלישי טהורה, ומתניתין משבשתא היא, ותני מנין לפולטת ש״ז ביום השלישי שהיא טהורה שנאמר היו נכונים לשלשת ימים, ולשלשת ימים דאמר קרא היינו ליום השלישי, דביום שלישי להפרשה נתנה תורה. אי נמי לא משבשתא היא אלא [רבנן דר׳] אליעזר בן עזריה היא, דסבירא [להו] הפולטת ביום השלישי טמאה, ולית הלכתא [כותייהו]:

מנין שמרחיצין וכו׳ אפילו בחמין שהוחמו בשבת, דאף ביום ג׳ מסוכן הוא, וכ״ש ראשון ושני. והמים חמין מחזיקין לגוף התינוק ומבריאין אותו:

לשון של זהורית. כמין לשון של צמר אדום, היו קושרין חציו בראש השעיר המשתלח לעזאזל וחציו בצוק, וכשהיה דוחה השעיר למטה היה הלשון ההוא מלבין ויודעין שנתכפרו עונותיהם: