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Mishnayos Shabbos Perek 7 Mishnah 4

שבת פרק ז׳ משנה ד׳


The mishna lists the measures in which various substances are significant and generally stored. One who carries out straw in a measure equivalent to a cow’s mouthful is liable. The measure that determines liability for etza is equivalent to a camel’s mouthful. Because it is a coarser food, he must carry out a greater amount in order to be liable. The measure that determines liability for ears of grain is equivalent to a lamb’s mouthful. The measure that determines liability for grass is equivalent to a goat’s mouthful, which is smaller than that of a lamb. The measure that determines liability for garlic leaves and onion leaves, if they are moist and fit for human consumption, is equivalent to a dried fig-bulk. A dried fig-bulk is the standard measure for human food. If the garlic leaves and onion leaves are dry, the measure for liability is equivalent to a goat’s mouthful. And none of these substances join together with one another to constitute a measure for liability because they are not equal in their measures. One who carries out a measure of foods fit for human consumption equivalent to a dried fig-bulk into a domain where carrying is prohibited on Shabbat is liable. And all those foods join together with one another to constitute that amount because they are equal in their measures. This amount is calculated without their shells, and their seeds, and their stems, and their bran, the husk that comes off of the wheat kernel when pounded, and their coarse bran that remains in the flour. Rabbi Yehuda says: None of the shells are calculated, except for the shells of lentils, which join together with the lentils to comprise the measure for liability because they are cooked and eaten with them.

הַמּוֹצִיא תֶבֶן, כִּמְלֹא פִי פָרָה. עָצָה, כִּמְלֹא פִי גָמָל. עָמִיר, כִּמְלֹא פִי טָלֶה. עֲשָׂבִים, כִּמְלֹא פִי גְדִי. עֲלֵי שׁוּם וַעֲלֵי בְצָלִים, לַחִים, כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת, יְבֵשִׁים, כִּמְלֹא פִי גְדִי. וְאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁווּ בְשִׁעוּרֵיהֶן. הַמּוֹצִיא אֳכָלִים כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת, חַיָּב, וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשָּׁווּ בְשִׁעוּרֵיהֶן, חוּץ מִקְּלִפֵּיהֶן וְגַרְעִינֵיהֶן וְעֻקְצֵיהֶן וְסֻבָּן וּמֻרְסָנָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, חוּץ מִקְּלִפֵּי עֲדָשִׁים שֶׁמִּתְבַּשְּׁלוֹת עִמָּהֶן:


עצה – straw of kinds of pulse/peas (Tractate Shabbat 76a).

כמלוא פי גמל – its measurement is larger than that of a cow’s mouthful and the mouthful of a cow is not obligated for straw, for it is not appropriate for a cow.

פי טלה – it is larger than the mouth of a kid (i.e., goat), therefore, ears of corn which are not appropriate for a kid, one is not liable for the mouthful of a kid until there is enough for the mouthful of a lamb, but grasses since they are appropriate for a kid and a lamb one is liable even for the mouthful of a kid.

לחין – that are appropriate for humans

like dried figs, for this is the measure for all human food on Shabbat but not for the mouthful of a kid for moist foods are not appropriate for kids.

מצטרפין – all of the foods of a human – these with those.

חוץ מקליפיהן – which are not [considered] food and do not complete the measure.

ועוקציהן – the tail of the fruit which is a mere tree.

וסובן – husk of wheat that falls off because of crushing/pounding.

ומורסנן – that remains in the winnow but Maimonides explains the opposite that their fine flour is thicker and worse than bran flour.

חוץ מקליפי עדשים – [that combine/are included together].

שהן מתבשלות עמהן – to exclude the outer husks which fall off when it is harvested and the husks of the beans at the time that they are moist and cooked with their husks; for Rabbi Yehuda they are included together with foods for the measurement of dry figs but not dried foods which are not consumed with their husks because they appear like flies in a bowl, but the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Yehuda.

עצה. תבן של מיני קטניות:

כמלוא פי גמל. שיעורו גדול ממלוא פי פרה, וכמלוא פי פרה לא מחייב בעצה, דהא לא חזיא לפרה:

עמיר. קשין של שבלין:

פי טלה. נפיש מפי גדי, הלכך עמיר דלא חזי לגדי לא מחייב כמלא פי גדי עד דאיכא מלא פי טלה, אבל עשבים הואיל וחזי לגדי ולטלה מחייב אפי׳ כמלוא פי גדי:

לחין. הראויין לאדם:

כגרוגרת. דזה שיעור לכל מאכל אדם בשבת, אבל כמלא פי גדי לא, דלחים לא חזו לגדי:

ומצטרפי. כל אוכלי אדם זה עם זה:

חוץ מקליפיהן. שאינן אוכל ואין משלימין השיעור:

ועוקציהן. זנב הפרי דהוא עץ בעלמא:

וסובן. קליפת החטים הנושרת מחמת הכתישה:

ומורסנן. הנשאר בנפה. ורמב״ם פירש איפכא דמורסן הוא עבה וגרוע מסובין:

חוץ מקליפי עדשים. [שמצטרפין]:

שהן מתבשלות עמהן. לאפוקי הקליפות החיצונות שהן נושרות כשעושה מהם גורן. וקליפי הפולין בזמן שהן לחים ומתבשלין עם קליפתן, לרבי יהודה מצטרפין עם האוכלין לשיעור גרוגרת, אבל יבשים לא שאינן נאכלין בקליפתן לפי שהן נראין כזבובין בקערה. ואין הלכה כר׳ יהודה: