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Mishnayos Rosh Hashanah Perek 1 Mishnah 8

ראש השנה פרק א׳ משנה ח׳


The following are unfit to give testimony, as they are considered thieves and robbers: One who plays with dice [kubbiyya] or other games of chance for money; and those who lend money with interest; and those who race pigeons and place wagers on the outcome; and merchants who deal in produce of the Sabbatical Year, which may be eaten, but may not be an object of commerce; and slaves. This is the principle: Any testimony for which a woman is unfit, these too are unfit. Although in certain cases a woman’s testimony is accepted, e.g., to testify to the death of someone’s husband, in the majority of cases her testimony is not valid.

אֵלּוּ הֵן הַפְּסוּלִין, הַמְשַׂחֵק בְּקֻבְיָא, וּמַלְוֵי בְרִבִּית, וּמַפְרִיחֵי יוֹנִים, וְסוֹחֲרֵי שְׁבִיעִית, וַעֲבָדִים. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל עֵדוּת שֶׁאֵין הָאִשָּׁה כְשֵׁרָה לָהּ, אַף הֵן אֵינָן כְּשֵׁרִים לָהּ:


משחקים בקוביא – bones that they would play with as a pledge, for the Rabbis stated that an obligation undertaken that one does not expect to be called upon to fulfill (e.g., a seller who agrees to pay exaggerated penalties if he fails to deliver merchandise by a certain time) which is not binding -and they are robbers according to [the decree of] the Rabbis.

ומלוי בריבית – they are not called robbers according to the Torah to invalidate them [to serving as witnesses or judges] for he gives him [a loan] on his own.

מפריחי יונים – that is a form of dice, if your dove comes in before my dove.

וסוחרי שביעית – They do business with Seventh Year produce, and the All-Merciful said, “to eat,” but not for business, and since they were suspected of violating on the religion for the sake of money, they were suspected of bringing false testimony on a bribe. -

והעבדים – they are invalid from the Torah, as derived by a fortiori from [the case of] a woman.

עדות שאין האשה כשרה לה – since there is testimony that a woman is fit for, such as to testify to a woman that he husband died in order to permit her to marry foreigners, and also to testify on the woman suspected of committing adultery who had been defiled that she should not drink [the accursed, bitter waters]. And those invalidations [made by] the Rabbis are also valid [to testify], but if they are ineligible to testify from the Torah, the Sages did not make them fit for the testimony of a woman, and even though the slave and the woman were deemed fit, they are ineligible to give testimony from the Torah.

משחקים בקוביא. עצמות שמשחקים בהן בערבון. ואמור רבנן אסמכתא לא קניא והרי הן גזלנים מדרבנן:

ומלוי בריבית. לא קרוי גזלן דאורייתא למפסליה, דהא מנפשיה יהיב ליה:

מפריחי יונים. היינו כעין קוביא, אם תקדמיה יונך ליוני:

וסוחרי שביעית. עושין סחורה בפירות שביעית, ורחמנא אמר לאכלה ולא לסחורה. ולפי שנחשדו כל אלו לעבור על דת מחמת ממון, חשדום להיות מעידים שקר על שוחד:

והעבדים. פסולים דאורייתא הם, קל וחומר מאשה:

עדות שאין האשה כשרה לה. לפי שיש עדות שהאשה כשרה, כגון להעיד לאשה שמת בעלה להתירה לינשא לזרים, וכן להעיד על סוטה שנטמאת שלא תשתה. והנך פסולין דרבנן, נמי כשרים. אבל פסולין בעבירה מן התורה לא הכשירו חכמים בעדות האשה, ואע״פ שהכשירו העבד והאשה שהן פסולים לעדות מן התורה: