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Mishnayos Pesachim Perek 9 Mishnah 4

פסחים פרק ט׳ משנה ד׳


When the Paschal lamb is sacrificed in a state of ritual impurity due to the fact that the majority of the Jewish people are ritually impure, zavim, and zavot, and menstruating women, and women after childbirth may not eat it, because the Paschal lamb overrides only ritual impurity imparted by a corpse, but it does not override other forms of ritual impurity. However, if they violated the halakha and ate from the offering, they are exempt from karet. One who eats sacrificial food in a state of ritual impurity is generally liable to receive karet; however, since in this case the offering is sacrificed in a state of ritual impurity, there is no punishment of karet even for ritually impure individuals who are not permitted to eat it. And Rabbi Eliezer exempts these individuals from karet even for entering the Temple in a state of ritual impurity, despite their not being permitted to enter, because people who are impure due to ritual impurity imparted by a corpse are permitted to enter the Temple in this situation despite their impurity.

הַפֶּסַח שֶׁבָּא בְטֻמְאָה, לֹא יֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ זָבִין וְזָבוֹת נִדּוֹת וְיוֹלְדוֹת. וְאִם אָכְלוּ, פְּטוּרִים מִכָּרֵת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר פּוֹטֵר אַף עַל בִּיאַת מִקְדָּשׁ:


לא יאכלו ממנו זבין – for concerning someone who is defiled by reason of a corpse, it is written (Numbers 9:10): "איש כי יהיה טמא לנפש" /”you...who are defiled by a corpse,” and we interpret from it – that an individual (if unclean on Passover) is suspended (i.e., postpones the celebration) until the Second Passover, but not the community (see Talmud Pesahim 66b) (but concerning a woman suffering from gonorrhea, even the community postpones)

ואם אכלו פטורים מכרת – for a person who eats holy things while his body is impure, as it is written (Leviticus 7:19): “Only he who is clean may eat such flesh.” And near it (verse 20): “But a person who, in a state of uncleanness, eats flesh from the LORD’s sacrifices of well-being, that person shall be cut off from his kin,” meat that is eaten by those who are pure; those who are unclean are liable because of their uncleanness, and is not eaten by the clean, such as the Passover sacrifice that comes with uncleanness, the impure are liable for it because of their uncleanness.

אף על ביאת מקדש – it exempts the men and women afflicted with gonorrhea if they entered in the Temple pure, and the Passover offering is suspended/postponed, because of the uncleanness, as it is written (Numbers 5:2): “[Instruct the Israelites] to remove from camp anyone with an eruption or a discharge and anyone defiled by a corpse.” At the time that those who are defiled by a corpse are sent out, those suffering with gonorrhea and lepers are sent out; if those who are defiled by a corpse are not sent out, those suffering with gonorrhea and lepers are not sent out. And the first Tanna does not explain the verse in this manner, since all of them need their portions from their gifts. And the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Eliezer.

לא יאכלו ממנו זבין. דגבי טמא לנפש כתיב איש, דדרשינן מיניה איש נדחה ואין צבור נדחין, (אבל גבי זיבה אף ציבור נידחין):

ואם אכלו פטורים מכרת. דאוכל קדשים בטומאת הגוף דכתיב (ויקרא ז׳:י״ט-כ׳) כל טהור יאכל בשר, וסמיך ליה והנפש אשר תאכל בשר כו׳ וטומאתו עליו ונכרתה, בשר הנאכל לטהורים, טמאים חייבין עליו משום טומאה, ושאינו נאכל לטהורים כגון פסח הבא בטומאה, אין טמאין חייבין עליו משום טומאה:

אף על ביאת מקדש. פוטר הזבין והזבות אם נכנסו למקדש פטורים, כשהפסח נדחה מפני הטומאה, דכתיב (במדבר ח) וישלחו מן המחנה כל צרוע וכל זב וכל טמא לנפש, בזמן שטמאי מתים משתלחין זבין ומצורעים משתלחין, אין טמאי מתים משתלחין אין זבין ומצורעים משתלחין. ותנא קמא לא דריש לקרא להכי, דכולהו אצטריכו לחלקם ממחנותיהם. ואין הלכה כר״א: