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Mishnayos Pesachim Perek 8 Mishnah 8

פסחים פרק ח׳ משנה ח׳


An acute mourner, i.e., a mourner on the day of the death of an immediate relative, is prohibited from eating sacrificial food. By Torah law, the prohibition applies only to the day of death itself, but it is permitted to partake of sacrificial food on the following night. By rabbinic decree, the period of acute mourning is extended to include the night as well. Despite this, an acute mourner immerses and eats his Paschal lamb in the evening. But he may still not eat other sacrificial food. However, one who hears about the death of his dead, i.e., he discovers that one of his immediate relatives died more than thirty days after the death, his status of acute mourning applies on a rabbinic level. And one who gathers the bones of his parents, who are buried in a temporary location for their flesh to decay and who is moving them to a permanent burial place must also observe a day of acute mourning by rabbinic decree. These mourners immerse and eat all types of sacrificial food at night. Since in these cases, even during the day, the mourning is by rabbinic decree, the Sages did not extend it into the evening. With regard to a convert who converted on Passover eve, Beit Shammai say: He immerses and eats his Paschal lamb in the evening. And Beit Hillel say: One who separates from the foreskin by being circumcised is ritually impure, like one who separates from the grave after coming in contact with a corpse. Consequently, he must first observe the seven-day purification process necessary to remove ritually impurity imparted by a corpse. Only then, from the eighth day onward, may he partake of sacrificial meat.

אוֹנֵן טוֹבֵל וְאוֹכֵל אֶת פִּסְחוֹ לָעֶרֶב, אֲבָל לֹא בַקָּדָשִׁים. הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ עַל מֵתוֹ, וְהַמְלַקֵּט לוֹ עֲצָמוֹת, טוֹבֵל וְאוֹכֵל בַּקָּדָשִׁים. גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, טוֹבֵל וְאוֹכֵל אֶת פִּסְחוֹ לָעֶרֶב. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִן הָעָרְלָה כְּפוֹרֵשׁ מִן הַקָּבֶר:


אונן טובל ואוכל פסחו לערב – since there is no status of a mourner between death and burial from the Torah other than during the daytime, as it states (Leviticus 10:19): “Had I eaten sin offering today,[would the LORD have approved?]” The daytime is prohibited; the nighttime is permitted. And he requires immersion [in a ritual bath, since he is forbidden until now with Holy Things, the Rabbis had to acquire immersion. But, the Onen/mourner between death and burial does not eat the rest of Holy Things in the evening. But mourning between death and burial is forbidden at night according to the Rabbis, but regarding the Passover sacrifice, they did not let their words stand in the place of extirpation. But the eating of other Holy Things is a mere positive commandment (Exodus 29:33): “These things shall be eaten only by those for whom expiation was made with them [when they were ordained and consecrated; they may not be eaten by a layman, for they are holy].

השומע על מתו – the day of the report/news [of the death] is the mourner between death and burial according to the Rabbis. And similarly, he who gathered for himself the bones of his father and/or his mother, we say in [Tractate] Moed Katan, that he mourns over them all that day, and in the evening, he does not mourn over them.

טובל ואוכל בקדשים לערב – for even the day itself is from the Rabbis.

כפורש מן הקבר – and he needs sprinkling on the third and seventh day, and the Schools of Shammai and Hillel did not disagree other than regarding an uncircumcised heathen who circumcised on the fourteenth [of Nisan], as the School of Hillel holds that there is a decree lest he becomes defiled in the next year and would say that last year, I did not purify from my ritual impurity until the day of the Eve of Passover when I immersed and ate. Now also, I will immerse and eat [the Passover sacrifice], but he didn’t know that last year, he was a heathen and was not susceptible to ritual impurity; now he is an Israelite and susceptible to impurity. But the School of Shammai holds that we do not make this decree. But an uncircumcised Israelite , such as one whose both died on account of circumcision, everyone holds that he immerses and eats his Passover offering in the evening, and we don’t make the decree concerning an uncircumcised Israelite on account of an uncircumcised heathen.

אונן טובל ואוכל פסחו לערב. דאין אנינות מן התורה אלא ביום שנאמר (ויקרא י׳:י״ט) ואכלתי חטאת היום, יום אסור, לילה מותר. וטבילה בעי, מתוך שנאסר עד עכשיו בקדשים אצרכוהו רבנן טבילה. אבל לא אכיל אונן בשאר קדשים לערב, דאנינות לילה אסורה מדרבנן. ולגבי פסח לא העמידו דבריהם במקום כרת. אבל אכילת שאר קדשים, עשה בעלמא הוא, ואכלו אותם אשר כופר בהם (שמות כ״ט:ל״ג):

השומע על מתו. יום שמועה הוי אונן דרבנן. וכן מי שלקטו לו עצמות אביו ואמו אמרינן במסכת מועד קטן, מתאבל עליהם כל אותו היום ולערב אין מתאבל עליהם:

טובל ואוכל בקדשים לערב. דאפילו יום גופיה מדרבנן הוא:

כפורש מן הקבר. וצריך הזאה שלישי ושביעי. ולא נחלקו ב״ש ובית הלל אלא בערל נכרי שמל ביום י״ד, דב״ה סברי גזירה שמא יטמא לשנה הבאה ויאמר אשתקד לא טהרתי מכל טומאה עד יום ערב פסח שטבלתי ואכלתי, השתא נמי אטבול ואוכל, ולא ידע דאשתקד נכרי הוה ולא מקבל טומאה, עכשיו ישראל הוא ומקבל טומאה. ובית שמאי סברי לא גזרינן. אבל ערל ישראל כגון שמתו אחיו מחמת מילה, דברי הכל טובל ואוכל פסחו לערב ולא גזרינן ערל ישראל אטו ערל נכרי: