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Mishnayos Niddah Perek 5 Mishnah 3

נדה פרק ה׳ משנה ג׳


A baby girl, even one who is one day old, who experiences an emission of blood, becomes impure with the impurity of a menstruating woman. A baby girl who is ten days old who experiences an emission of blood for three consecutive days after the conclusion of the seven days fit for menstruation becomes impure with the impurity of ziva, and is therefore obligated to observe seven clean days before immersion. A baby boy, even one who is one day old, becomes impure with the impurity of ziva; and becomes impure with the impurity of leprous marks; and becomes impure with impurity imparted by a corpse; and he creates a levirate bond requiring the widow of his childless brother to enter into levirate marriage with him; and he exempts his widowed mother from the obligation of levirate marriage, freeing her to marry anyone she chooses; and he enables his mother, an Israelite woman who is no longer married to his father, a priest, to continue to partake of teruma; and he disqualifies his mother, the daughter of a priest who is no longer married to his father, an Israelite man, from continuing to partake of teruma, because the child is unfit to partake of teruma; and he inherits the estate of his mother if she died on the day of his birth; and if he dies, he bequeaths that inheritance to his paternal brothers; and one who kills him is liable for his murder, as it is written: “And he that smites any man mortally shall be put to death” (Leviticus 24:17), i.e., any man, including a child who is one day old; and if he dies, his status in relation to his father and to his mother and to all his relatives, in terms of the halakhot of mourning, is like that of a full-fledged groom [keḥatan shalem], whose death is deeply mourned.

תִּינוֹקֶת בַּת יוֹם אֶחָד, מִטַּמְּאָה בְנִדָּה. בַּת עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים, מִטַּמְּאָה בְזִיבָה. תִּינוֹק בֶּן יוֹם אֶחָד, מִטַּמֵּא בְזִיבָה, וּמִטַּמֵּא בִנְגָעִים, וּמִטַּמֵּא בִטְמֵא מֵת, וְזוֹקֵק לְיִבּוּם, וּפוֹטֵר מִן הַיִּבּוּם, וּמַאֲכִיל בַּתְּרוּמָה, וּפוֹסֵל מִן הַתְּרוּמָה, וְנוֹחֵל וּמַנְחִיל. וְהַהוֹרְגוֹ, חַיָּב. וַהֲרֵי הוּא לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ וּלְכָל קְרוֹבָיו כְּחָתָן שָׁלֵם:


מיטמאה בנדה – if she (i.e., a one-day-old girl) saw blood.

בת עשרה ימים מיטמאה בזיבה – if she saw it (i.e., blood) on three consecutive days after the seven [days of Niddah menstruation]. For all blood that she sees within seven days is the blood of Niddah/menstruating woman, therefore, it is impossible for her to become defiled through her flux – that is, to become having a large flux until ten days [have passed].

תינוק בן יום אחד מיטמא בזיבה – as it is written (Leviticus 15:2): “When any man has a discharge issuing/איש איש כי יהיה זב [from his member, he is impure],” that teaches about a one-day-old male child that becomes unclean through contact with gonorrhea.

ומיטמא בנגעים – for concerning plagues it is written (Leviticus 13:2): “When a person has on the skin of his body/אדם כי-יהיה בעור-בשרו [a swelling, a rash, or a discoloration, and it develops into a scale affection on the skin of his body],” but a male baby who is one-day-old is a person, for implies a person of any sort [of age].

ומיטמא בטמא מת – as it is written (Numbers 19:18): “and people who were there/ועל-הנפשות אשר היו-שם,” a person of any sort [of age].

וזוקק ליבום (and imposes requirement of levirate marriage) – if he was born one day prior to the death of his brother. But if he was born after the death of his brother, he does impose the requirement [of levirate marriage], as it is written (Deuteronomy 25:5 – though the printed edition lists Chapter 28): “When brothers dwell together/כי-ישבו אחים יחדיו [and one of them dies and leaves no son, the wife of he deceased shall not be married to a stranger, outside the family.],that they had one dwelling [together] in the world.

ופוטר מן היבום (and frees [a sister-in-law from the requirement of levirate marriage) – if he was born after the death of his father and lived one day and die. But all the time that she is pregnant, she is not permitted to marry.

ומאכיל בתרומה – a Jewish daughter that married a Kohen and [he died], and a son was born after his death, she consumes [heave-offering] for him on the day that he was born, as it is written (Leviticus 22:11): “and those that are born into his household may eat of his food”/ויליד ביתו הם יאכלו בלחמו , and we expound upon it that they feed their mother. But if she was left pregnant [when he died], she does not eat for him (i.e., the unborn fetus) until he is born.

ופוסל מן התרומה – as for example a Kohen that had two wives, one who was divorced that he transgressed and married when she was a divorcee and one who was not divorced, and he has children from the one who was not divorced, but servants that fell to them through inheritance consume heave-offering for them, as it is written (Leviticus 22:11): ‘but a person who is a priest’s property by purchase may eat of them”/וכהן כי-יקנה נפש קנין כספו הוא יאכל בו, and he has a son one day from the woman who was divorced [at the time of their marriage] and he is a חלל/son born to a priest and a woman whom the priest is forbidden to marry [and that child is considered an Israelite – and his daughter or widow may not marry a priest], but he has a portion in the servants, but he invalidates all of them from [consuming] the heave-offering, for there is no choice to know to which of them gets his portion, and especially a child who is one-day old who is worthy of inheritance. But all the while that he is not [yet] born, everyone consumes [heave-offering], for there is no claim/possession for a fetus.

ונוחל ומנחיל – and he inherits the mother. If his mother died on the day that he was born, he inherits her. But when he dies, his brothers from his father and inherit from him the property of his mother, but the fetus that is her womb, if she dies pregnant, he does not inherit his mother to transmit by legal succession/inheritance to his brothers from his father, for he died prior to his mother, and a son does not inherit his mother in the grave to transmit succession to his brothers from his father.

וההורגו חייב – as it is written (Leviticus 24:17): “If anyone kills any human being/ואיש כי-יכה כל-נפש אדם, [shall be put to death],” in any case.

כחתן שלם - that they are obligated to mourn over him, and these words, that I am sure about this person that he completed his months [of being alive beyond pregnancy], but if he is not certain about this person that he completed his months [of being alive beyond pregnancy], they are not obligated to mourn over him until he will be thirty-one days old.

מיטמאה בנדה. אם ראתה דם:

בת עשרה ימים מיטמאה בזיבה. אם ראתה שלשה ימים רצופים לאחר שבעה. דכל דם שרואה בתוך שבעה דם נדה הוא, הילכך אי אפשר לה ליטמא בזיבה דהיינו להיות זבה גדולה, עד עשרה ימים:

תינוק בן יום אחד מיטמא בזיבה. דכתיב (שם ט״ו) איש איש כי יהיה זב, לימד על תינוק בן יומו שמיטמא בזיבה:

ומיטמא בנגעים. דגבי נגעים כתיב (שם י״ג) אדם כי יהיה בעור בשרו, ותינוק בן יומו אדם הוא, דאדם כל שהוא משמע:

ומיטמא בטמא מת. דכתיב (במדבר י״ט:י״ח) ועל הנפשות אשר היו שם, נפש כל שהוא:

וזוקק ליבום. אם נולד יום אחד קודם מיתת אחיו. אבל נולד לאחר מיתת אחיו, אינו זוקק, דכתיב (דבריס כ״ח) כי ישבו אחים יחדיו, שהיתה להם ישיבה אחת בעולם:

ופוטר מן היבום. אם נולד לאחר מיתת אביו וחיה שעה אחת ומת. אבל כל זמן שמעוברת, אינו מתירה לינשא:

ומאכיל בתרומה. בת ישראל שניסת לכהן ומת, ונולד בן לאחר מיתתו, אוכלת בשבילו בו ביום שנולד, כדכתיב (ויקרא כ״ב:י״א) ויליד ביתו הם יאכלו בלחמו, ודרשינן יאכילו את אמם. אבל הניחה מעוברת, אינה אוכלת בשבילו עד שיוולד:

ופוסל מן התרומה. כגון כהן שהיו לו שתי נשים, אחת גרושה שעבר ונשאה כשהיא גרושה, ואחת שאינה גרושה, ויש לו בנים משאינה גרושה, ועבדים שנפלו להן בירושה אוכלים בתרומה בשבילן, דכתיב [שם] וכהן כי יקנה נפש קנין כספו, ויש לו בן יום אחד מן הגרושה והוא חלל, ויש לו חלק בעבדים, ופוסל את כולן מן התרומה, דאין ברירה לדעת מי מהן מגיע לחלקו. ודוקא בן יום אחד דראוי לירושה. אבל כל זמן שלא נולד, אוכלים כולן, דאין זכיה לעובר:

ונוחל ומנחיל. נוחל את האם. אם מתה אמו ביום שנולד, הרי הוא נוחלה. וכשמת הוא, באין אחיו מאביו ויורשים הימנו נכסי אמו. אבל עובר שבמעיה, אם מתה מעוברת אינו נוחל את אמו להנחיל לאחיו מאביו, שהרי מת הוא קודם אמו, ואין הבן יורש את אמו בקבר להנחיל לאחיו מאביו:

וההורגו חייב. דכתיב (ויקרא כ״ד) ואיש כי יכה כל נפש, מכל מקום:

כחתן שלם. שחייבים להתאבל עליו. והני מילי, דקים להו בגויה שכלו לו חדשיו, אבל לא קים להו שכלו לו חדשיו, אין חייבין להתאבל עליו עד שיהיה בן שלשים ואחד יום: