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Mishnayos Niddah Perek 5 Mishnah 1

נדה פרק ה׳ משנה א׳


After the birth of an offspring by caesarean section, the mother does not observe seven or fourteen days of impurity and thirty-three or sixty-six days of purity for male and female offspring, respectively, and she is not obligated to bring for it the offering brought by a woman after childbirth. Rabbi Shimon says: The halakhic status of that offspring is like that of an offspring born in a standard birth. All women become ritually impure with the flow of blood from the uterus into the outer chamber, i.e., the vagina, although it did not leave the woman’s body, as it is stated: “And her issue in her flesh shall be blood, she shall be in her menstruation seven days” (Leviticus 15:19), indicating that even if her menstrual blood remains in her flesh, she becomes impure. But one who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav] and one who experiences a seminal emission do not become ritually impure until their emission of impurity emerges outside the body.

יוֹצֵא דֹפֶן, אֵין יוֹשְׁבִין עָלָיו יְמֵי טֻמְאָה וִימֵי טָהֳרָה, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו קָרְבָּן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה כְיָלוּד. כָּל הַנָּשִׁים מִטַּמְּאוֹת בַּבַּיִת הַחִיצוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ט״ו:י״ט), דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ. אֲבָל הַזָּב וּבַעַל קֶרִי, אֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִים, עַד שֶׁתֵּצֵא טֻמְאָתָן לַחוּץ:


יוצא דופן – a woman [whose womb] they opened through a drug and they removed the fetus and then she healed.

אין יושבין עליו ימי טומאה – seven [days] for [the birth of] a male and fourteen [days] for a female.

וימי טהרה – she does not have blood of purity.

ואין חייבין עליו קרבן – of a child-bearing mother, as it is written (Leviticus 12:2): “When a woman at childbirth bears a male, [she shall be impure seven days; she has be impure as at the time of her menstrual infirmity],” until she gives birth from the place where she emits a secretion at coition.

רבי שמעון אומר הרי זה כילוד (like one born naturally) – as it states (Leviticus 12:5): “ If she bears a female, [she shall be impure two weeks as during her menstruation, and she shall remain in a state of blood purification for sixty-six days],” to include that which goes for from the side (i.e., delivered by Caesarean section). But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Shimon.

כל השנים מיטמאות – as a menstruating woman/נדה from when the blood goes out from the interior of the womb where the menses are discharged and reached the vagina/בית החיצון , but even though the enclosures of the womb preserved it and it did not pass outwards. As it is written (Leviticus 15:19): “[When a woman has a discharge,] her discharge being blood from her body/דם יהיה זבה מבשרה,” it teaches that she defiles even though it is still within her body,” and the vagina/בית החיצון is called the place where the limb threshes (i.e., euphemism for sexual contact) at the time of sexual intercourse.

אינן מטמאין עד שתצא טומאתן לחוץ – as is written concerning a person with gonorrhea/בזב (Leviticus 15:2): “When any man has a discharge issuing from his member/איש איש כי יהיה זב מבשרו, [he is impure],” until his flux leaves from his flesh, but regarding someone with a [nocturnal] emission, it is written (Leviticus 15:16 – the printed edition incorrectly lists chapter 22): “When a man has an emission of semen/ואיש אשר תצא ממנו שכבת זרע, [he shall bathe his whole body in water and remain impure until evening].”

יוצא דופן. אשה שפתחו [מעיה] ע״י סם והוציאו העובר לחוץ ונתרפאה:

אין יושבין עליו ימי טומאה. שבעה לזכר ושבועיים לנקבה:

וימי טהרה. ואין לה דם טוהר:

ואין חייבין עליו קרבן. של יולדת. דכתיב (ויקרא י״ב:ב׳) אשה כי תזריע וילדה, עד שתלד ממקום שמזרעת:

רבי שמעון אומר הרי זה כילוד. שנאמר [שם] ואם נקבה תלד, לרבות יוצא דופן. ואין הלכה כר׳ שמעון:

כל הנשים מיטמאות. בנדה משיצא הדם מן המקור והגיע לבית החיצון, ואע״ג דהעמידוהו כותלי בית הרחם ולא פירש לחוץ. דכתיב [שפ ט״ו] דם יהיה זובה בבשרה, מלמד שמטמאה אע״פ שעדיין הוא בבשרה. ובית החיצון מקרי מקום שהאבר דש בו בשעת ביאה:

אינן מטמאין עד שתצא טומאתן לחוץ. דכתיב בזב [שם] איש כי יהיה זב מבשרו, עד שתצא זובו מבשרו. ובבעל קרי כתיב (שם כב) אשר תצא ממנו שכבת זרע: