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Mishnayos Niddah Perek 4 Mishnah 4

נדה פרק ד׳ משנה ד׳


With regard to a pregnant woman who experiences labor pains, and they are accompanied by an emission of blood, her status is that of a menstruating woman. If she experienced these pains accompanied by emissions of blood for three consecutive days within the eleven days between periods of menstruation, during which time emissions of blood render a woman a zava, and she rested from labor for a twenty-four-hour period, i.e., the pangs subsided, and she then gave birth, it indicates that the emissions were not due to her imminent labor, and this woman is considered one who gives birth as a zava. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says: She is considered a zava only if the pangs subsided for a twenty-four-hour period of a night and the following day, like Shabbat evening and its accompanying day. Additionally, she is considered a zava in a case where she rested from the pain of labor but not necessarily from the flow of blood. In other words, the presence of labor pangs determines whether this blood is due to labor or the impure blood of ziva. Accordingly, if the pangs cease for twenty-four hours, she is considered a zava even if blood was discharging continuously from when she experienced her labor pains.

הַמַּקְשָׁה, נִדָּה. קִשְּׁתָה שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים בְּתוֹךְ אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם וְשָׁפְתָה מֵעֵת לְעֵת וְיָלְדָה, הֲרֵי זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, לַיְלָה וָיוֹם, כְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת וְיוֹמוֹ. שֶׁשָּׁפְתָה מִן הַצַּעַר, וְלֹא מִן הַדָּם:


המקשה נדה – this is what it says: A woman having difficulties in her giving birth during the days of her menstruating period and saw blood during her labor, she is a menstruant woman/Niddah, for the Torah did not purify the blood of her protracted labor other than during the eleven days of her days of protracted menstruation/זיבה, but the All-Merciful did not purify it during her days of being a menstruant woman/נדה .

קשתה- on account of the fetus for three days during the eleven days of her protracted menstruation/ימי זיבה, and she saw it (i.e., blood) for three consecutive days.

ושפתה (and she was relieved)- that she stood in relief and in comfort from her throes of birth agony for an astronomical period of twenty-four hours on the fourth day.

וילדה (and she gave birth) – and the matter was revealed that the blood that she saw did not come on account of the fetus, therefore, this [woman] gives birth while having a flux. But if she did not have relief close to her giving birth, all of the blood that she saw, was on account of the fetus and the All-Merciful purified her from the blood of flux, as it is written (Leviticus 15:25): “When the woman had a discharge of blood/זוב דמה [for many days, not at the time of her menstrual impurity, she shall be impure, as though at the time of her menstrual impurity, as long as her discharge lasts],” her blood is on account of herself but not her blood on account of her fetus.

לילה ויום – that if she had relief for half of Tuesday and she gave birth during the middle of Wednesday, for she had a period of relief for an astronomical period of twenty-four hours, this is not comfort/relief, unless her relief was for a night and a day after the night,

like Friday night and its day. And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Eliezer.

ששפתה מן הצער – meaning to say, that she was relieved that we stated [in the Mishnah], that she had relief from the pain even though she didn’t have relief from the blood, it is relief.

המקשה נדה. הכי קאמר, המקשה בלדתה בימי נדתה וראתה דם בהקשותה, הרי היא נדה, דלא טיהרה תורה לדם קושי אלא באחד עשר יום של ימי זיבה, אבל בימים של נדה לא טיהריה רחמנא:

קשתה. מחמת ולד שלשה ימים בתוך אחד עשר יום של ימי זיבה וראתה כל שלשה ימים רצופים:

ושפתה. שעמדה בשופי ובנחת מחבליה מעת לעת ברביעי:

וילדה. אגלאי מלתא דדמים שראתה לא באו מחמת ולד, הלכך הרי זו יולדת בזוב. אבל אם לא שפתה סמוך ללידתה, כל דמים שראתה, מחמת ולד הוא, ורחמנא טהרינהו מזיבה, דכתיב זוב דמה, דמה מחמת עצמה ולא דמה מחמת ולד:

לילה ויום. דאם שפתה בחצי יום שלישי וילדה בחצי יום רביעי דשפתה מעת לעת, אין זה שופי, אא״כ שפתה לילה ויום של אחר הלילה:

כלילי שבת ויומו. והלכה כר׳ אליעזר:

ששפתה מן הצער. כלומר ושפתה זו שאמרנו, אם שפתה מן הצער אע״פ שלא שפתה מן הדם, הוי שופי: