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Mishnayos Negaim Perek 13 Mishnah 9

נגעים פרק י"ג משנה ט׳


If a person entered a house afflicted with a nega, carrying his clothes upon his shoulders, and his sandals and rings in his hands, both he and they become unclean immediately. If, however, he was wearing his clothes and had his sandals on his feet and his rings on his hands, he becomes unclean immediately, but they remain clean, unless he stayed as much time as is required for the eating of half a loaf of wheat bread and not of barley bread, while in a reclining posture and eating with some condiment.

מִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבַיִת הַמְנֻגָּע וְכֵלָיו עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְסַנְדָּלָיו וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדָיו, הוּא וָהֵן טְמֵאִין מִיָּד. הָיָה לָבוּשׁ בְּכֵלָיו וְסַנְדָּלָיו בְּרַגְלָיו וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדָיו, הוּא טָמֵא מִיָּד, וְהֵן טְהוֹרִין עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה כְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס. פַּת חִטִּין וְלֹא פַת שְׂעֹרִים, מֵסֵב וְאוֹכְלָן בְּלִפְתָּן:


וכליו על כתפו – folded and placed on his shoulder in the manner of a burden [to carry].

וטבעותיו בידיו – placed in the palm of his hand that is not according to the manner of dressing.

הוא והן טמאין מיד – for we call them also with vessels (Leviticus 14:46): “Whoever enters the house [while it is closed up] shall be impure [until evening].”/"והבא אל-הבית...יטמא" .

היה לבוש כליו – that now his vessels ae not impure, other than on account of himself.

והן טהורים עד שישהה בכדי אכילת פרס – as it is written (Leviticus 14:47): “Whoever sleeps in the house must wash his clothes, and whoever eats in the house must wash his clothes.” And it is taught in a Baraita: I have established only eating and sleeping, but from where can I derive that not eating or not sleeping [is included]? The inference comes to teach us, "יכבס את-בגדיו"/he must wash his clothes – is an inclusion (i.e., widening the scope of the Halakha), if so, why does it state (in Leviticus 14:47): "השכב בבית...והאכל בבית"/one who sleeps in the house….and one who eats in the house? To give a measurement to (Leviticus 13:46): "והבא אל-הבית"/whoever enters the house, which does not require washing of clothes until he remains there long enough eats while he is lying down, meaning to say, when he is reclining. And how much is the measurement of eating? In order to eat a piece of bread, which is one-half of a loaf of an Eruv (see Tractate Eruvin 8b and the dispute between Rashi and Maimonides; according to Rabbi Yohanan ben Beroka, a full loaf is six eggs and half of it is three eggs; according to Rabbi Shimon, the loaf is eight eggs and half of it is four eggs; Maimonides decides according to Rabbi Yohanan ben Beroka, whereas Rashi decides like Rabbi Shimon). According to the words of Rashi, they are four eggs, and according to the words of Maimonides they are three eggs.

מיסב ואוכלן בלפתן (sits and eats them with their condiments) – that its measure is less than if he [would] eat them without their condiments, that through the taste of their condiments, he hurries to eat.

וכליו על כתפו. מקופלים ומונחים על כתיפו דרך משאוי:

וטבעותיו בידיו. מונחים על פס ידו שלא כדרך מלבוש:

הוא והן טמאין מיד. דקרינן נמי בכלים והבא אל הבית יטמא:

היה לבוש בכליו. דהשתא אין כליו טמאים אלא מחמת דידיה:

והן טהורים עד שישהה בכדי אכילת פרס. דכתיב והאוכל בבית יכבס את בגדיו והשוכב בבית יכבס את בגדיו, ותניא, אין לי אלא אוכל ושוכב, לא אוכל ולא שוכב מנין, תלמוד לומר יכבס בגדיו, ריבה. א״כ למה נאמר אוכל ושוכב, ליתן שיעור לבא אל הבית שאין טעון כיבוס בגדים עד שישהה כדי שיעור אכילה כשהוא שוכב, כלומר כשהוא מיסב. וכמה שיעור אכילה, כדי אכילת פרס, שהוא חצי ככר של עירוב, לדברי רש״י הם ארבע ביצים, ולדברי רמב״ם שלש ביצים:

מיסב ואוכל בלפתן. ששיעורו מועט משאלו [היה] אוכלן בלא לפתן, שמתוך טעם של לפתן ממהר לאכול: