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Mishnayos Nedarim Perek 5 Mishnah 1

נדרים פרק ה׳ משנה א׳


Partners who vowed not to derive benefit from one another are prohibited from entering into a courtyard that they jointly own, since each one has a portion in it and benefits from the share owned by the other, thereby leading to a violation of the vow. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: It is permitted for both to use the courtyard, as it can be said that since each has a portion in the courtyard; this one enters into his own portion and that one enters into his own portion. And all agree that they are both prohibited from setting up a mill or an oven in the jointly owned courtyard, or to raise chickens in it. If only one of the partners was prohibited by a vow from deriving benefit from the other, he may not enter the courtyard. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: He can say to the partner: I am entering into my own portion and I am not entering into your portion. And the court forces the one who took such a vow to sell his portion so that he does not cause the other to transgress.

הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁנָּדְרוּ הֲנָאָה זֶה מִזֶּה, אֲסוּרִין לִכָּנֵס לֶחָצֵר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, זֶה נִכְנָס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וְזֶה נִכְנָס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִים לְהַעֲמִיד שָׁם רֵחַיִם וְתַנּוּר וּלְגַדֵּל תַּרְנְגוֹלִים. הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶם מֻדָּר הֲנָאָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, לֹא יִכָּנֵס לֶחָצֵר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, יָכוֹל הוּא לוֹמַר לוֹ, לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלִּי אֲנִי נִכְנָס וְאֵינִי נִכְנָס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלָּךְ. וְכוֹפִין אֶת הַנּוֹדֵר לִמְכֹּר אֶת חֶלְקוֹ:


השותפין – that each one of them a house in the courtyard, and the courtyard that is in front of the houses, both of them are partners in it But at the time when the courtyard has the law of division/partition, and as such there will be four cubits in the courtyard to each and every house in front of the house, and there will remain from the courtyard another four cubits to this one (i.e., person) and four cubits to that one (i.e., person), in this everyone admits that both of them are forbidden to enter into the courtyard until they divide it, for since the law of division/partition is there. But Rabbi Eliezer and the Rabbis do not disagree other than regarding a courtyard that does not have the law of division, as the Rabbis state that each of them enters through his fellow’s [property], but Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov holds that there is a retrospective designation (i.e., the legal effect resulting from an action selection or designation or disposal of things previously undefined for their purpose/ברירה) and this one goes to his and that one goes to his.

ושניהם אסורים להעמיד שם רחים וכו' – But Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov admits in all of these that the partners prevent each other, for it does not belong to permit for the reason of the retrospective designation, for since it is within his hand/power to prevent him, and if he doesn’t prevent him,it is found that he provides him benefit.

ופופין את הנודר למכור את חלקו – for we are concerned that after he sees his fellow entering, he will forget and will also enter. But when both are prohibited [from entering] we don’t concern ourselves, and specifically when he took a vow on his own not to enjoy benefit from his fellow is when we force him to sell his portion but if his fellow made him take a vow that he will not benefit from him, he is the victim of an unavoidable accident, and we don’t force him to see for what can he possibly do? But if you stated such, each partner should make his friend take a vow that he will not benefit from him in order that we can force him to sell his portion.

השותפין. שיש לכל אחד מהם בית בחצר, והחצר שלפני הבתים שניהם שותפין בה. ובזמן שיש בחצר דין חלוקה והוא שיהיה לכל בית ובית ארבע אמות בחצר לפני הבית וישאר עוד מן החצר ארבע אמות לזה, וארבע אמות לזה בהא מודו כולי עלמא דשניהם אסורים ליכנס בחצר עד שיחלוקו, הואיל ויש בה דין חלוקה. ולא אפליגו ר׳ אליעזר ורבנן אלא בחצר שאין בה דין חלוקה, רבנן אמרי כל אחד מהם בשל חברו הוא נכנס, ורבי אליעזר בן יעקב סבר יש ברירה והאי בדידיה קאזיל והאי בדידיה קאזיל:

ושניהם אסורים להעמיד שם רחים וכו׳ ומודה ר׳ אליעזר בן יעקב בכל הני דשותפים מעכבים זה על זה, דלא שייך להתיר מטעם ברירה. דכיון דבידו לעכב עליו ואינו מעכב נמצא מהנהו:

וכופין את הנודר למכור את חלקו. דחיישינן מאחר שרואה את חברו נכנס ישכח ויכנס גם הוא. אבל כששניהם אסורים לא חיישינן. ודוקא כשנדר מעצמו שלא יהנה בשל חברו הוא דכופין אותו למכור חלקו, אבל אם חברו הדירו שלא יהנה ממנו, אנוס הוא ואין כופין אותו למכור דמאי אית ליה למעבד, ואם אמרת כן כל שותף ידיר את חברו שלא יהנה ממנו כדי שיכופו אותו למכור לו חלקו: