Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Nedarim Perek 3 Mishnah 2

נדרים פרק ג׳ משנה ב׳


Vows of exaggeration that the Sages dissolved without a request to a halakhic authority, as described in the first mishna in the chapter, include the following examples. If one said concerning a certain item: It is konam for me if I did not see on this road as many people as those who ascended from Egypt, or if he said: It is konam for me if I did not see a snake as large as the beam of an olive press, in these cases the speaker did not intend to vow but used hyperbole to demonstrate a point, and it is understood by others that the expression is not to be taken literally. What are examples of vows that are unintentional that are dissolved, as taught at the beginning of the chapter? One who vows: This loaf is forbidden to me as if it were an offering [konam] if I ate or if I drank, and then he remembers that he ate or drank. Or, one who vows: This loaf is konam for me if I will eat or if I will drink, and he then forgets and eats or drinks. Also, one who said: Benefiting from me is konam for my wife because she stole my purse or she hit my son, and then it became known that she had not hit him or it became known that she had not stolen. The mishna lists another example of an unintentional vow: One who saw people entering his courtyard and eating figs, and because he did not want them to do so he said: The figs are forbidden to you like an offering. And then it was found that his father and brother were in the group, and there were others with them as well, and certainly he did not intend to take a vow prohibiting his father and brother from eating the figs. In such a case, Beit Shammai says: They, his father and brother, are permitted to eat the figs, and those others that were with them are prohibited from doing so. And Beit Hillel says: Both these and those are permitted to eat the figs, as will be clarified in the Gemara.

נִדְרֵי הֲבַאי, אָמַר, קוֹנָם אִם לֹא רָאִיתִי בַדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה כְיוֹצְאֵי מִצְרָיִם, אִם לֹא רָאִיתִי נָחָשׁ כְּקוֹרַת בֵּית הַבָּד. נִדְרֵי שְׁגָגוֹת, אִם אָכָלְתִּי וְאִם שָׁתִיתִי, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁאָכַל וְשָׁתָה. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹכֵל וְשֶׁאֲנִי שׁוֹתֶה, וְשָׁכַח וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה. אָמַר, קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי נֶהֱנֵית לִי, שֶׁגָּנְבָה אֶת כִּיסִי וְשֶׁהִכְּתָה אֶת בְּנִי, וְנוֹדַע שֶׁלֹּא הִכַּתּוּ וְנוֹדַע שֶׁלֹּא גְנָבָתּוּ. רָאָה אוֹתָן אוֹכְלִים תְּאֵנִים וְאָמַר, הֲרֵי עֲלֵיכֶם קָרְבָּן, וְנִמְצְאוּ אָבִיו וְאֶחָיו, וְהָיוּ עִמָּהֶן אֲחֵרִים, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הֵן מֻתָּרִין וּמַה שֶּׁעִמָּהֶן אֲסוּרִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין:


נדרי הבאי – exaggeration and additional speech, but he himself knows that it was not the case.

קונם אם לא ראיתי – KONAM upon me this loaf of bread if I did no see, etc. (i.e., a snake as s big as the beam of an olive press).

נדרי שגגות – he said, KONAM upon me this loaf of bread.

אם אכלתי אם שתיתי ונזכר שאכל ושתה – and at the time of the vow he thought that he did not eat and did not drink, it would not be a vow.

קונם שאיני אוכלך לך ואיני שותה, ושכח ואכל ושתה – that at the time that the vow takes place which is at the time of eating and/or drinking, he forgot the vow, it is permitted/annulled, as we derive it from an oath as it is written (Leviticus 5:4): “[Or when a person uttes an oath to bad or good purpose –] whatever a man may utter in an oath – [and though he has known it, the fact has escaped him, but later he realizes his guilt in any of these matters -]” that we require that he will be a man at the time when the oath takes place upon him, meaning to say, that he will be mindful from the oath, and the same law applies with regard to a vow.

קונם אשתי נהנית לי שגנבה את כיסו – these are vows made in error, for since it became known that she did not steal from him, it is found that there was no vow.

אלו ואלו מותרין – for a vow that was partially permitted is completely permitted, for he does not want that his vow would take place, but rather, similar to that he made the vow, and since part of it was in made inadvertently in error, all of it is nullified.

נדרי הבאי. גוזמא ושפת יתר, והוא בעצמו יודע שלא היה כך:

קונם אם לא ראיתי. קונם עלי ככר זה אם לא ראיתי וכו׳:

נדרי שגגות. אמר קונם עלי ככר זה:

אם אכלתי אם שתיתי ונזכר שאכל ושתה. ובשעת הנדר היה סבור שלא אכל ולא שתה לא הוי נדר:

קונם שאיני אוכל לך ואיני שותה, ושכח ואכל ושתה. דבשעה שהנדר חל שהוא בשעת האכילה והשתיה שכח את הנדר, מותר, דילפינן משבועה דכתיב (ויקרא ה׳:ד׳) האדם בשבועה, דבעינן שיהיה אדם בשעה שהשבועה חלה עליו, כלומר שיהיה זכור מן השבועה, והוא הדין בנדר:

קונם אשתי נהנית לי שגנבה את כיסי. היינו נדרי שגגות, דכיון שנודע שלא גנבה לו נמצא שלא היה נדר:

אלו ואלו מותרין. דנדר שהותר מקצתו הותר כולו דאינו רוצה שיחול נדרו אלא כעין שנדר אותו, וכיון שמקצתו היה שוגג נתבטל כולו: