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Mishnayos Nazir Perek 9 Mishnah 4

נזיר פרק ט׳ משנה ד׳


Any case of uncertainty with regard to leprous sores is initially deemed pure until it is established that it is a case of ritual impurity. Once it has been determined to be a case of impurity, uncertainty concerning it is deemed impure. This mishna discusses another case that includes the statement: There is a basis to anticipate the matter. One examines a man who experienced a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav] in seven ways, as long as he has not been confirmed as having a gonorrhea-like discharge [ziva.] With regard to an individual’s second such discharge, before he has been established as a greater zav, one examines to see whether there may have been a particular trigger of his discharge. One examines him with regard to food and with regard to drink, in case the discharge might have been the result of overeating or excess drinking; with regard to a burden, as it might have been caused by the weight of a heavy burden; and with regard to jumping, in case he jumped and this led to the discharge; and with regard to sickness; and with regard to an arousing sight; and with regard to the thought of a woman. Once he has been confirmed as having a ziva, after two definite discharges of ziva, one no longer examines him in this way, as any discharge is deemed impure. If one experiences three discharges of ziva, he is obligated to bring an offering following his purification. Accordingly, his discharge that was due to circumstances beyond his control, i.e., for one of the seven reasons listed above, and his discharge about which it is uncertain if it is ziva, and even his semen, which is not usually considered the discharge of a zav, are all impure. Why is this so? It is because there is a basis for anticipating the matter. Once he has the status of a zav, it can be assumed that subsequent discharges are of ziva as well. The Sages similarly taught: With regard to one who strikes another with heavy blows, and doctors assessed that he would die as a result of the beating, but his health improved from what it was, so that they then determined that he would not die from his injuries, and afterward his condition worsened and he died, the one who struck him is liable to receive court-imposed capital punishment, as it is assumed that the victim’s death was caused by the assault. Rabbi Neḥemya says: He is exempt, because there is a basis for anticipating the matter. Since the victim began to recover during his illness, it is reasonable to assume that his death was caused by a factor other than the assault.

כָּל סְפֵק נְגָעִים בַּתְּחִלָּה, טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִזְקַק לַטֻּמְאָה. מִשֶּׁנִּזְקַק לַטֻּמְאָה, סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא. בְּשִׁבְעָה דְרָכִים בּוֹדְקִין אֶת הַזָּב עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִזְקַק לַזִּיבָה. בְּמַאֲכָל, וּבְמִשְׁתֶּה, בְּמַשָּׂא, וּבִקְפִיצָה, וּבְחֹלִי, וּבְמַרְאֶה, וּבְהִרְהוּר. מִשֶּׁנִּזְקַק לַזִּיבָה, אֵין בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ. אָנְסוֹ וּסְפֵקוֹ וְשִׁכְבַת זַרְעוֹ, טְמֵאִין, שֶׁרַגְלַיִם לַדָּבָר. הַמַּכֶּה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וַאֲמָדוּהוּ לְמִיתָה, וְהֵקֵל מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיָה, לְאַחַר מִכָּאן הִכְבִּיד וּמֵת, חַיָּב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, פָּטוּר, שֶׁרַגְלַיִם לַדָּבָר:


כל ספק נגעים בתחלה טהור – such as the example of two [people] who came to a Kohen; on one of them was a bright white spot on the skin (eventually, one of the symptoms of leprosy) like the size of a bean, and on the other was a bright white spot on the skin like a Selah (a coin), and at the end of a week, on this one was like a Selah and that one was like a Selah and it was not known on which of them it spread, both of them are ritually pure, even though certainly one of them is ritually impure.

משנזקק לטומאה ספיקו טמא – such as the example of two who came to a Kohen; on one of them was a bright white spot on the skin like the size of a bean and the other, [a bright white spot on the skin] like the size of a Selah, and at the end of a week, this one’s was like a Selah and more, and the other one’s was like a Selah and more. Both reduced to become the size of like a Selah. Even though one of them is definitely ritually pure, for already, the spreading of the leprous spot occurred, both of them are impure, because a decision had been made in favor of uncleanness until they return to the size of a bean.

בשבעה דרכים בודקין את הזב – for if he saw, as a consequence of an accident, he is pure, for we expound upon זב מבשרו/”a discharge from his member/flesh” (Leviticus 15:2) and not on account of his accident.

עד שלא נזקק לטומאה – that is when he sees a second affliction/attack, he becomes a complete Zav/a man suffering from gonorrhea defiling by lying and sitting, but a first affliction/attack defiles by accident ritual impurity until nightfall according to the law of someone who experienced a seminar emission which combines with the second [affliction/attack], even if it was by accident.

במאכל – if he ate things that bring him towards a flux as for example, meat, oil, milk, and cheese, eggs and old wine.

ובמשתה – with increase/excess of drinking.

במשא – something heavy that he carried.

במראה – he saw a woman even without [impure] fantasy.

ובהרהור – even though he did not see [her], if one of these seven [things] happened to him before he saw the second affliction/attack, he does not become a Zav/gonorrhea, and a drop [of semen] does not defile through carrying.

משנזקק לטומאה – that he saw a second attack/affliction not by accident,

we don’t examine him, but even if he saw a third [attack/affliction] by accident, he becomes a Zab/one afflicted with gonorrhea for a sacrifice.

וספיקו ושבכת זרעו טמאים – uncertain on account of effusion of his semen, as for example if he saw effusion of semen first and a bit of gonorrhea that comes afterwards, it does not defile for the person who sees an emission does not defile with gonorrhea from the time of twenty-four astronomical hours. And until a decision has been not been made for uncleanness, the flux purifies the gonorrhea because it is an accident. But after a decision has been made for uncleanness, the flux purifies the gonorrhea which does not leave undecided/in doubt for on account of the flux comes the gonorrhea.

שרגלים לדבר – for that attack/affliction is on account of an accident, because he has already become a Zav/gonorrhea.

ר"נ פוטר שרגלים לדבר – for he did not die on account of a wound, since it was more lenient than what it was, and the Halakha is not according to Rabbi [Nehemiah].

כל ספק נגעים בתחלה טהור. כגון שנים שבאו אצל כהן, בזה בהרת כגריס ובזה בהרת כסלע, ובסוף שבוע בזה כסלע ובזה כסלע, ואין ידוע באיזה מהן פשה, שניהן טהורין, ואע״ג דודאי א׳ מהן טמא:

משנזקק לטומאה ספיקו טמא. כגון שנים שבאו אצל כהן, בזה בהרת כגריס ובזה כסלע, ובסוף שבוע בזה כסלע ועוד ובזה כסלע ועוד, חזרו להיות כסלע. אע״פ שהאחד מהם ודאי טהור שכבר הלך הפשיון, שניהם טמאים, כיון שנזקקו לטומאה. עד שיחזרו לכגריס:

בשבעה דרכים בודקין את הזב. שאם ראה מחמת אונס, טהור, דדרשינן זב מבשרו, ולא מחמת אנסו:

עד שלא נזקק לטומאה. דהיינו כשרואה ראיה שניה שבה נעשה זב גמור לטמא משכב ומושב. אבל ראיה ראשונה מטמאה באונס טומאת ערב כדין בעל קרי, ומצטרפת עם השניה אפילו היתה באונס:

במאכל. אם אכל דברים המביאים לידי זיבה, כגון בשר שמן חלב וגבינה ביצים יין ישן:

ובמשתה. ברבוי שתיה:

במשא. כבד שנשא:

במראה. ראה אשה אפילו לא הרהר:

ובהרהור. אע״פ שלא ראה. אם אירע לו אחד מאלו השבעה קודם שראה ראיה שניה, אינו נעשה זב, והטפה אינה מטמאה במשא:

משנזקק לטומאה. שראה ראיה שניה שלא באונס:

אין בודקין אותו. ואף אם ראה שלישית באונס נעשה זב לקרבן:

וספיקו ושכבת זרעו טמאים. ספיקו מחמת שכבת זרעו. כגון אם ראה שכבת זרע תחלה וטיפת זיבה הבאה אחר כך אינה מטמאה שהרואה קרי אינו מיטמא בזיבה מעת לעת. ועד שלא נזקק לטומאה הקרי מטהר את הזיבה משום דהוי אונס. ולאחר שנזקק לטומאה אין הקרי מטהר את הזיבה שאין תולין שמחמת הקרי באה הזיבה:

שרגלים לדבר. שאין אותה ראיה מחמת אונס כיון שכבר נעשה זב:

ר״נ פוטר שרגלים לדבר. שלא מחמת מכה מת, כיון שהקל ממה שהיה. ואין הלכה כרבי נחמיה: