Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Menachos Perek 9 Mishnah 7

מנחות פרק ט׳ משנה ז׳


For all communal offerings there is no mitzva of placing hands on the head of the offering, except for the bull that comes to atone for a community-wide violation of any one of the mitzvot that was perpetrated due to an erroneous ruling of the Sanhedrin, where the judges of the Sanhedrin are required to place their hands upon its head (see Leviticus 4:13–21); and the scapegoat brought on Yom Kippur, upon which the High Priest places his hands (see Leviticus, chapter 16). Rabbi Shimon says: Also in the case of the goat that comes to atone for a community-wide perpetration of idol worship that occurred due to an erroneous ruling of the Sanhedrin, the judges of the Sanhedrin are required to place their hands upon its head (see Numbers 15:22–26). All offerings of an individual require placing hands, except for the firstborn offering, the animal tithe offering, and the Paschal offering. The mitzva of placing hands is performed by the owner of the offering. The mishna adds: And if the owner died, then the heir is regarded as the offering’s owner and so he places his hands on the offering and brings the accompanying libations. And furthermore, he can substitute a non-sacred animal for it. Although it is prohibited to perform an act of substitution, if the owner of an offering does this, his attempt is successful to the extent that the non-sacred animal is thereby consecrated, even though the original offering also remains sacred.

כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר אֵין בָּהֶם סְמִיכָה, חוּץ מִן הַפַּר הַבָּא עַל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת, וְשָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף שְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד טְעוּנִים סְמִיכָה, חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפָּסַח. וְהַיּוֹרֵשׁ סוֹמֵךְ וּמֵבִיא נְסָכִים וּמֵמִיר:


פר הבא על כל המצות – on one of all of the commandments, as for example, the Jewish court/Bet Din errantly ruled that forbidden fat is permitted, and this is bull brought for an unwitting communal sin [because of an active unwitting transgression committed by the Jewish people, as a result of an erroneous halakhic decision handed down by the Great Sanhedrin], that is in Scripture, and placing of the hands [on the head of the animal] is written concerning it (Leviticus 4:15): “The elders of the community shall lay their hands upon the head of the bull” and three from the elders of the Jewish court would lay their hands [upon the head of the bull].

ושעיר המשתלח – to Azazel, as it is written concerning it (Leviticus 16:21): “Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat [and confess over it all the iniquities and transgressions of the Israelites].”

שעירי עבודה זרה – as it is written in the [Torah] portion of Shelah Lekha (Numbers 15:22): “If you unwittingly fail [to observe any one of the commandments that the LORD has declared to Moses.” But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Shimon.

כל קרבנות היחיד טעונים סמיכה – for the essence of the laying of the hands [on the head] of an individual sacrifice is written (Leviticus 3:2): “He shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering [and slaughter it at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting].”

היורש סומך – if his father had offered a freewill offering with a sacrifice of a burnt offering or a peace-offering and died, his son places his hands upon it.

ומביא נסכים – of he sacrifice.

וממיר – if he made a substitution of another animal, his exchange takes effect upon it and both of them are holy, it is as if his father substituted it.

פר הבא על כל המצות. על אחת מכל המצות. כגון הורו ב״ד שחלב מותר. וזהו פר העלם דבר של צבור שבמקרא, וסמיכה כתיבא ביה (ויקרא ד׳:ט״ו) וסמכו זקני העדה את ידיהם על ראש הפר, ושלשה מזקני ב״ד היו סומכין עליו:

ושעיר המשתלח. לעזאזל, כתיב ביה (שם ט״ז) וסמך אהרן את שתי ידיו על ראש השעיר החי:

שעירי עבודה זרה. דכתיב בפרשת שלח לך וכי תשגו כו׳. ואין הלכה כר׳ שמעון:

כל קרבנות היחיד טעונים סמיכה. דעיקר סמיכה בקרבן יחיד הוא דכתיבא (שם ג׳) וסמך ידו על ראש קרבנו:

היורש סומך. אם התנדב אביו בקרבן עולה ושלמים ומת, בנו סומך עליו:

ומביא נסכים. של קרבן:

וממיר. אם המירה בבהמה אחרת, תמורתו חלה עליה ושתיהן קדושות כאילו המירה אביו: