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Mishnayos Meilah Perek 4 Mishnah 6

מעילה פרק ד׳ משנה ו׳


The fruit of a tree during the first three years after its planting [orla] (see Leviticus 19:23), and diverse kinds,i.e., grain sown in a vineyard (see Deuteronomy 22:9) join together to constitute the requisite measure to prohibit a mixture that they are mixed into. This applies when the volume of the permitted produce is less than two hundred times the prohibited produce. Rabbi Shimon says: They do not join together. A garment must be at least three by three handbreadths in order to become a primary source of ritual impurity, by means of ritual impurity imparted by the treading of a zav. A sack made from goats’ hair must be at least four by four handbreadths, while an animal hide must be five by five, and a mat six by six. The garment and the sack, the sack and the hide, and the hide and the mat all join together to constitute the requisite measure to become ritually impure in accordance with the material of the greater measure. Rabbi Shimon said: What is the reason that they join together, despite the fact that their requisite measures are not equal? Because all the component materials are fit to become ritually impure through the ritual impurity imparted to a seat upon which a zav sits, as they can each be used to patch a saddle or saddlecloth. Since the measure of all these materials is equal in the case of a zav, they join together for other forms of ritual impurity as well.

הָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין. הַבֶּגֶד וְהַשַּׂק, הַשַּׂק וְהָעוֹר, הָעוֹר וְהַמַּפָּץ, מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין לִטַּמֵּא מוֹשָׁב:


הערלה וכלאי הכרם מצטרפין (see also Tractate Orlah, Chapter 2, Mishnah 1) – that if he consumed half-of-a-measure from this one (i.e., Orlah/fruit that grows during the first three years after a tree was planted) and half-of-a-measure from that one (i.e., Kilei HaKerem/food crops in a vineyard – which unlike the prohibition of a mixture of seeds, it is prohibited to derive any benefit from the crop grown in the vineyard and all of the produce must be burned – see Tractate Kilayim), they combine [together to make that person liable] to be flogged [forty times – actually, forty minus one). Alternatively, Orlah and Kilei HaKerem are mixed together that fell into something permitted, they combine [to become prohibited] with dry produce in one out of two hundred, and with moist produce, if it provides a taste/flavor.

אינן מצטרפין – since they are two distinctive categories, but if there is in a pot to nullify her taste of the Orlah/fruit that grows during the first three years after a tree was planted, on its own, and the taste of Kilei HaKerem/food crops in a vineyard on its own, everything is permitted. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Shimon.

הבגד – which defiles [through the treading of someone with a flux] three handbreadths by three handbreadths.

והשק – that it defiles [through the treading of someone with a flux or other impurities] four handbreadths by four handbreadths.

והעור – five handbreadths by five handbreadths.

והמפץ (poor-man’s mattress) – six handbreadths by six handbreadths. The cloth/בגד combines with the sack/שק – that is less than it, to become defiled by four handbreadths by four handbreadths. And similarly, each other combines to that which is a less than it, and all of them combine with each other to defile according to the lesser measurement of defilement, but not the lesser with the greater.

מפני שהן ראוים לטמא מושב (suitable to be made unclean as that used for sitting) – that is to say, even though we have stated above (see Mishnah 3 of this chapter) that everything where their measurements are not equivalent they do not combine, here they combine even though their measurements are not equivalent, for since they are equivalent for this things – each one of them suitable to be made ritually impure as that used for the sitting of the person with a flux, therefore, they combine for the defilement of sitting.

הערלה וכלאי הכרם מצטרפין. שאם אכל חצי שיעור מזה וחצי שיעור מזה, מצטרפין ללקות את הארבעים. אי נמי, ערלה וכלאי הכרם מעורבים יחד שנפלו לתוך היתר, מצטרפים לאסור ביבש במאתים, ובלח בנותן טעם:

אינן מצטרפין. כיון דשני שמות נינהו. אלא אם יש בקדירה לבטל טעם הערלה בפני עצמה וטעם כלאי הכרם בפני עצמו הכל מותר. ואין הלכה כר׳ שמעון:

הבגד. שהוא מטמא שלשה על שלשה:

והשק. שהוא מטמא ארבעה על ארבעה:

והעור. חמשה על חמשה:

והמפץ. ששה על ששה. הבגד מצטרף לשק שקל הימנו, לטמא בארבעה על ארבעה. וכן כל אחד מצטרף לקל. וכולן מצטרפים זה עם זה לטמא כשיעור הטומאה הקלה, אבל לא הקל עם החמור:

מפני שהן ראוים לטמא מושב. כלומר אע״ג דאמרן לעיל דכל שאין שיעורן שוה אינן מצטרפין, הכא מצטרפין אע״פ שאין שיעורן שוה, הואיל והן שוין לדבר זה שכל אחד מהן ראוי לטמא במושב הזב, הלכך מצטרפין לטומאת מושב: