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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 3 Mishnah 2

מכות פרק ג׳ משנה ב׳


The mishna continues enumerating those liable to receive lashes: A ritually impure person who ate sacrificial food and one who entered the Temple while ritually impure. And one who eats the forbidden fat of a domesticated animal; or blood; or notar, leftover flesh from an offering after the time allotted for its consumption; or piggul, an offering invalidated due to intent to sprinkle its blood, burn its fats on the altar, or consume it, beyond its designated time; or one who partakes of an offering that became impure, is flogged. And one who slaughters a sacrificial animal or sacrifices it on an altar outside the Temple courtyard, and one who eats leavened bread on Passover, and one who eats on Yom Kippur and one who performs labor on Yom Kippur, and one who blends the anointing oil for non-sacred use, and one who blends the incense that was burned on the altar in the Sanctuary for non-sacred use, and one who applies the anointing oil, and one who eats unslaughtered animal or bird carcasses, or tereifot, which are animals or birds with a condition that will lead to their death within twelve months, or repugnant creatures, or creeping animals, is liable to receive lashes. If one ate untithed produce, i.e., produce from which terumot and tithes were not separated; or first-tithe produce whose teruma of the tithe was not taken; or second-tithe produce or sacrificial food that was not redeemed; he is liable to receive lashes. With regard to the measure for liability for eating forbidden food, the mishna asks: How much does one need to eat from untithed produce and be liable to receive lashes? Rabbi Shimon says: If one ate any amount of untithed produce he is liable to receive lashes. And the Rabbis say: He is liable only if he eats an olive-bulk, which is the minimum measure characterized as eating. Rabbi Shimon said to them: Do you not concede to me with regard to one who eats an ant of any size that he is liable to receive lashes? The Rabbis said to Rabbi Shimon: He receives lashes for eating an ant of any size due to the fact that it is an intact entity in the form of its creation, and that is what the Torah prohibited. Rabbi Shimon said to them: One kernel of wheat is also in the form of its creation, and therefore one should be liable to receive lashes for eating any intact entity.

הַטָּמֵא שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהַבָּא אֶל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ טָמֵא, וְהָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב, וְדָם, וְנוֹתָר, וּפִגּוּל, וְטָמֵא, הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמַּעֲלֶה בַחוּץ, וְהָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, וְהָאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת, שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים. אָכַל טֶבֶל וּמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ. כַּמָּה יֹאכַל מִן הַטֶּבֶל וִיהֵא חַיָּב, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים כַּזַּיִת. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, אֵין אַתֶּם מוֹדִים לִי בְּאוֹכֵל נְמָלָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כִבְרִיָּתָהּ. אָמַר לָהֶן, אַף חִטָּה אַחַת כִּבְרִיָּתָהּ:


המפטם את השמן – He who makes oil sample of the anointing out.

והסך בשמן המשחה – that Moses our teacher of blessed memory, made.

אכל טבל – Its explicit prohibition is from (Leviticus 22:15): “But [the priests] must not allow the Israelites to profane the sacred donations that they set aside for the LORD.” The verse speaks of what they will donate in the future.

ומעשר ראשון שלא נטלה תרומתו – and even he is [punished] with death, as it is written (Numbers 18:27): “This shall be accounted to you as your gift. As with the new grain from the threshing floor [or the flow from the vat].”

ומעשר שני שלא נפדה – Second Tithe that became defiled and even if he is in Jerusalem, it is prohibited to eat it until it is redeemed, but a person who eats it in Jerusalem while it is not yet redeemed, is flogged. And its explicit prohibition is from (Deuteronomy 26:14): “I have not cleared out any of it while impure,” whether I am defiled and it is ritually pure, whether I am ritually pure and it is ritually impure. And from where do we learn that Second Tithe which was defiled – that we redeem it in Jerusalem? As it states (Deuteronomy 14:24): “…should you be unable to transport them,” is explained as you are unable to eat it, as it is written (Genesis 43:34): “Portions were served them from the table…”

והקדש שלא נדפה – There is no prohibition written directly, but its explicit prohibition comes from an analogy of [the words] "חטא""חטא" /”sin,” “sin” – from the priest’s due, but even though the All-Merciful (i.e., God), excluded [the words] (Leviticus 22:9): “and they die for it,” but not through religious sacrilege, from death, [Scripture] excluded him, but not from an explicit prohibition.

באוכל נמלה שהוא חייב – because (Leviticus 11:29): “…from among the things that swarm on the earth,” and even though it lacks according to the measure.

אף חטה אחת כברייתה – But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Shimon. And we don’t call it a creature – other than that which has in it a soul alone.

המפטם את השמן. העושה שמן דוגמת שמן המשחה:

והסך בשמן המשחה. שעשה משה רבינו ע״ה:

אכל טבל. אזהרתיה מלא יחללו את קדשי בני ישראל אשר ירימו (ויקרא כ״ב:ט״ו), בעתידין לתרום הכתוב מדבר:

ומעשר ראשון שלא נטלה תרומתו. שאף הוא במיתה כטבל, דכתיב (במדבר י״ח:כ״ז) ונחשב לכם תרומתכם כדגן מן הגורן וגו׳:

ומעשר שני שלא נפדה. מעשר שני שנטמא ואפילו הוא בירושלים אסור לאוכלו עד שיפדה, והאוכלו בירושלים עד שלא נפדה לוקה. ואזהרתו מולא בערתי ממנו בטמא (דברים כ״ו), בין שאני טמא והוא טהור בין שאני טהור והוא טמא. ומנין למעשר שני שנטמא שפודין אותו בירושלים, שנאמר (שם י״ד) כי לא תוכל שאתו, פירוש, לא תוכל לאכלו, כדכתיב (בראשית מ״ג:ל״ד) וישא משאות מאת פניו:

והקדש שלא נפדה. לא כתיב ביה לאו בהדיא, אלא אתיא אזהרה דידיה גזירה שוה דחטא חטא מתרומה. ואע״ג דמיעט רחמנא ומתו בו, ולא במעילה, ממיתה מיעטיה ולא מאזהרה:

באוכל נמלה שהוא חייב. משום שרץ השורץ על הארץ (ויקרא י״א:כ״ט), ואע״ג דלית בה כשיעור:

אף חטה אחת כברייתה. ולית הלכתא כר׳ שמעון. דלא קרינן בריה אלא לבריה שיש לה נשמה בלבד: