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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 3 Mishnah 15

מכות פרק ג׳ משנה ט"ו


All those liable to receive karet who were flogged are exempted from their punishment of karet, as it is stated: “And your brother shall be debased before your eyes” (Deuteronomy 25:3), indicating: Once he is flogged he is as your brother, as his sin has been atoned and he is no longer excised from the Jewish people; this is the statement of Rabbi Ḥananya ben Gamliel. And Rabbi Ḥananya ben Gamliel says: And if for one who performs one transgression his soul is taken for it, as one’s soul can be uprooted from the world for one transgression, for one who performs a single mitzva, it is all the more so the case that his soul will be given to him, as the reward for performing mitzvot is greater than the punishment for performing transgressions. Rabbi Shimon says: It is derived from its own place in the Torah, as it is stated at the conclusion of the passage discussing intercourse with forbidden relatives, which is punishable with karet: “And the souls that perform them shall be excised” (Leviticus 18:29), and it states toward the beginning of that chapter: “That a person shall perform and live by them” (Leviticus 18:5). It is inferred that with regard to one who sits and did not perform a transgression, God gives him a reward like that received by one who performs a mitzva. Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says that as the verse states: “Only be steadfast to not eat the blood, as the blood is the soul” (Deuteronomy 12:23), it can be derived a fortiori: And if with regard to the blood, which a person’s soul loathes, one who abstains from its consumption receives a reward for that action, as it is written in a subsequent verse: “You shall not eat it, so that it shall be good for you and for your children after you” (Deuteronomy 12:25); then concerning robbery and intercourse with forbidden relatives, which a person’s soul desires and covets, one who abstains from their performance and overcomes his inclination, all the more so that he and his descendants and the descendants of his descendants until the end of all generations will merit a reward.

כָּל חַיָּבֵי כְרֵתוֹת שֶׁלָּקוּ, נִפְטְרוּ יְדֵי כְרֵתָתָן, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (דברים כה) וְנִקְלָה אָחִיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ, כְּשֶׁלָּקָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְאָחִיךָ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מָה אִם הָעוֹבֵר עֲבֵרָה אַחַת, נוֹטֵל נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ, הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁתִּנָּתֵן לוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִמְּקוֹמוֹ הוּא לָמֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח) וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשֹׂת וְגוֹ', וְאוֹמֵר (שם) אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם. הָא, כָּל הַיּוֹשֵׁב וְלֹא עָבַר עֲבֵרָה, נוֹתְנִין לוֹ שָׂכָר כְּעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים יב) רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְגוֹ', וּמָה אִם הַדָּם שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קָצָה מִמֶּנּוּ, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר, גָּזֵל וַעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מִתְאַוָּה לָהֶן וּמְחַמַּדְתָּן, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מֵהֶן עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה לוֹ וּלְדוֹרוֹתָיו וּלְדוֹרוֹת דּוֹרוֹתָיו עַד סוֹף כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת:


נפטרו מידי כריתתן – if they did returned in repentance.

העושה מצוה אחת על אחת כמה וכמה – there are those who interpret this – that it is speaking of all those who are liable for extirpation who were flogged, for whomever accepted upon himself the judgement and performed a Mitzvah when he was flogged, all the more so that his soul will be saved for him and that he will be exempt from extirpation, for he has one good measure [in his favor] over and above the measure for retribution. And there are those who interpret that this is for itself – to inform the giving of reward [for the performance] of the commandments, all the more so, from the punishment for transgressions.

ממקומו הוא למד – from those liable for extirpation, that we speak about them we learn that he who sits and does not commit a sin, we credit him for a reward as one who performs a Mitzvah (see Mishnah Avot, Chapter 2, Mishnah 2), as it is written concerning the laws of incest (Leviticus 18:29): “such persons shall be cut off [from their people].” And it states (Leviticus 18:5): “[You shall keep My laws and My rules,] by the pursuit of which man shall live: [I am the LORD].” And near it (verse 6): “None of you shall come near anyone of his own flesh [to uncover nakedness: I am the LORD].” Behold that a person who sits and does not uncover the nakedness [of one of his forbidden relations], the Written Torah calls him that he has performed a Mitzvah, and it is written concerning him (verse 5), “of which a man shall live.” In the same manner that [the Torah] punishes with extirpation for someone who commits a transgression, and this specifically regarding one who has the opportunity to sin and he conquers his [negative] impulse and doesn’t do it, is like Joseph the Righteous and others like him.

נפטרו מידי כריתתן. אם עשו תשובה:

העושה מצוה אחת על אחת כמה וכמה. אית דמפרשי, דעל חייבי כריתות שלקו קאמר, מי שקיבל עליו הדין ועשה מצוה כשלקה, על אחת כמה וכמה שתינתן לו נפשו ויפטר מידי כרת, שמדה טובה מרובה על מדת פורענות. ואית דמפרשי, דמלתא באנפיה נפשה קאמר, להודיע מתן שכרן של מצות, ק״ו מעונשן של עבירות:

ממקומו הוא למד. מחייבי כריתות דאיירי בהו אנו למדין שהיושב ולא עבר עבירה מעלין עליו שכר כעושה מצוה. דכתיב בעריות (ויקרא י״ח:ה׳) ונכרתו הנפשות, ואומר (שם) אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהם, וסמיך ליה לא תקרבו לגלות ערוה, הרי שמי שיושב ואינו מגלה ערוה הכתוב קוראו עושה מצוה, וכתיב ביה וחי בהם, כדרך שהעניש כרת במי שעושה עבירה. וזה דוקא במי שבא עבירה לידו וכבש יצרו ולא עשאה, כיוסף הצדיק וכיוצא בו: