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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 3 Mishnah 14

מכות פרק ג׳ משנה י"ד


and the court crier recites the verses: “If you do not observe to perform all the words of this law that are written in this book, that you may fear this glorious and awesome name, the Lord your God. And the Lord will make your plagues [makkotekha] outstanding, and the plagues of your descendants, and even great plagues, and of long continuance, and severe sicknesses, and of long continuance” (Deuteronomy 28:58–59). And then he returns to the beginning of the verse. He also recites: “And you shall observe the matters of this covenant, and do them, that you may make all that you do to prosper” (Deuteronomy 29:8), and concludes with the verse: “And He is merciful and shall atone for transgression, and destroys not; and many a time does He turn His anger away, and does not stir up all His wrath” (Psalms 78:38), and then returns to the beginning of the verse that starts: “If you do not observe to perform.” If the one being flogged dies at the hand of the attendant, the latter is exempt, because he acted at the directive of the court. If the attendant added for him an additional lash with a strap and he died, the attendant is exiled to a city of refuge on his account, as an unwitting murderer. If the one being flogged involuntarily sullies himself, due to fear or pain, whether with excrement or with urine, he is exempt from further lashes. Rabbi Yehuda says that the threshold of shame for men and women is different: The man is exempted if he sullies himself with excrement, and the woman is exempted even with urine.

וְהַקּוֹרֵא קוֹרֵא (שם כח) אִם לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת וְגוֹ' וְהִפְלָא ה' אֶת מַכֹּתְךָ וְאֵת מַכּוֹת וְגוֹ', וְחוֹזֵר לִתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא (שם כט) וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת וְגוֹ', וְחוֹתֵם (תהלים עח) וְהוּא רַחוּם יְכַפֵּר עָוֹן וְגוֹ', וְחוֹזֵר לִתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא. וְאִם מֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ, פָּטוּר. הוֹסִיף לוֹ עוֹד רְצוּעָה אַחַת וָמֵת, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה עַל יָדוֹ. נִתְקַלְקֵל בֵּין בְּרֶעִי בֵּין בְּמַיִם, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָאִישׁ בְּרֶעִי וְהָאִשָּׁה בְּמָיִם:


והקורא קורא – as it is written (Leviticus 19:20): “there shall be indemnity; [they shall not, however, be put to death…”through reading it shall be, for we read about him (Deuteronomy 28:58): “If you fail to observe faithfully [all the terms of this Teaching that are written in this book]…etc.” The greatest of the judges reads [the Biblical text of Deuteronomy 28:58-59) and the one next to him counts and the third states after each beating [what has occurred]. And it is a Mitzvah upon the reader to shorten and to complete the Biblical verses following the flogging, and if he didn’t shorten, he returns and reads it a second time and hurries to read and to complete when the flogger completes his floggings (Makkot 23a).

ואם מת תחת ידו פטור – because he beats him with permission

הוסיף לו – such as the case where he made an error in the counting.

נתקלקל – as a result of the beatings, feces came out.

פטור – as it is written (Deuteronomy 25:3): “your brother be degraded before your eyes,” for he became degraded when he became soiled.

ואשה אף במים – since her shame is greater. And the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Yehuda.

והקורא קורא. דכתיב (ויקרא י״ט:כ׳) בקורת תהיה, בקריאה תהא, שקורין עליו אם לא תשמור לעשות וגו׳. וגדול שבדיינים קורא, והסמוך לו מונה, והשלישי אומר על כל הכאה והכאה. ומצוה על הקורא לצמצם להשלים המקראות בסוף המלקות, ואם לא צמצם חוזר וקורא פעם שניה וממהר לקרוא ולהשלים כשישלים המלקה להלקות:

ואם מת תחת ידו פטור. מפני שמכהו ברשות:

הוסיף לו. כגון דטעה במנינא:

נתקלקל. שהוציא רעי מחמת ההכאה:

פטור. דכתיב (דברים כ״ה:ג׳) ונקלה אחיך לעיניך, והרי נקלה שנתלכלך:

ואשה אף במים, דבושתה מרובה. ואין הלכה כר׳ יהודה: