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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 2 Mishnah 3

מכות פרק ב׳ משנה ג׳


The father is exiled to a city of refuge due to his unintentional murder of his son. And the son is exiled due to his unintentional murder of his father. Everyone is exiled due to their unintentional murder of a Jew, and a Jew is exiled due to his unintentional murder of any of them, except for the unintentional murder of a gentile who resides in Eretz Yisrael and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot [ger toshav]. And a ger toshav is exiled only due to his unintentional murder of a ger toshav. A blind person who unintentionally murdered another is not exiled; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says: He is exiled. The enemy of the victim is not exiled, as presumably it was not a completely unintentional act. Rabbi Yosei says: Not only is an enemy not exiled, but he is executed by the court, because his halakhic status is like that of one who is forewarned by witnesses not to perform the action, as presumably he performed the action intentionally. Rabbi Shimon says: There is an enemy who is exiled and there is an enemy who is not exiled. This is the principle: In any case where an observer could say he killed knowingly, where circumstances lead to the assumption that it was an intentional act, the enemy is not exiled, even if he claims that he acted unintentionally. And if it is clear that he killed unknowingly, as circumstances indicate that he acted unintentionally, he is exiled, even though the victim is his enemy.

הָאָב גּוֹלֶה עַל יְדֵי הַבֵּן, וְהַבֵּן גּוֹלֶה עַל יְדֵי הָאָב. הַכֹּל גּוֹלִין עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹלִין עַל יְדֵיהֶן, חוּץ מֵעַל יְדֵי גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב. וְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב. הַסּוּמָא אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, גּוֹלֶה. הַשּׂוֹנֵא אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַשּׂוֹנֵא נֶהֱרָג, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְמוּעָד. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ שׂוֹנֵא גוֹלֶה וְיֵשׁ שׂוֹנֵא שֶׁאֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְדַעַת הָרַג, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַעַת הָרַג, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה:


האב גולה על ידי בנו – for he did not hit him to teach him Torah or ethics or a trade

הכל גולין על ידי ישראל – and even a slave or a Cuthean

חוץ מעל ידי גר תושב – for if he inadvertently killed the son of an Israelite, he is not exiled, but is killed.

הסומא אינו גולה – As it is written (Numbers 35:23): “or inadvertently dropped upon him/"בלא ראות" [any object of stone, and death resulted – though he was not an enemy of his and did not seek his harm],” excluding someone blind.

רבי מאיר אומר: גולה – [The words] "בלא ראות"/”or inadvertently dropped upon him (without seeing) , includes he blind person. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Meir.

השונא – all who did not speak with him for three days because of enmity (see Mishnah Sanhedrin Chapter 3, Mishnah 5 – but Israelites were not suspected of this, according to that Mishnah). And the Halakha is not either according to Rabbi Yosi B’Rabbi Yehuda nor like Rabbi Shimon, but rather, the one who hates is not killed nor is he given the shelter of asylum because his legal status is close to acting with premeditation.

האב גולה על ידי בנו. כשלא הכהו ללמדו תורה או מוסר או אומנות:

הכל גולים על ידי ישראל. ואפילו עבד או כותי:

חוץ מעל ידי גר תושב. שאם הרג בן ישראל בשוגג, אינו גולה אלא נהרג:

הסומא אינו גולה. דכתיב (במדבר ל״ה) בלא ראות, פרט לסומא:

רבי מאיר אומר גולה. בלא ראות לרבות את הסומא. ואין הלכה כר״מ:

השונא. כל שלא דבר עמו שלשה ימים מחמת איבה. ואין הלכה לא כר׳ יוסי ברבי יהודה ולא כר׳ שמעון, אלא השונא אינו נהרג ואינו נקלט, שחזקתו שהוא קרוב למזיד: