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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 2 Mishnah 2

מכות פרק ב׳ משנה ב׳


One who threw a stone into the public domain and killed a person is exiled. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: If after the stone left his hand the other person placed his head out into the public domain and received a blow from the stone, he is exempt, as when he cast the stone into the public domain there was no one there. In the case of one who threw the stone into his courtyard and killed a person, if the victim had permission to enter into there, the murderer is exiled, but if not, he is not exiled, as it is stated with regard to the cities of refuge: “And as one who goes with his neighbor into the forest” (Deuteronomy 19:5), from which it is derived: Just as with regard to a forest, the victim and the assailant both have equal permission to enter there, so too, with regard to all places that the victim and the assailant have permission to enter there, the killer is liable. This serves to exclude the courtyard of the homeowner, where the victim and the assailant do not both have permission to enter there. Since the victim had no right to enter his courtyard, the unintentional murderer is exempt from exile. Abba Shaul says: Another halakha can be derived from that verse: Just as the cutting of wood that is mentioned in the verse is optional, so too, all those liable to be exiled are examples of cases where the unintentional murderer was engaged in an activity that is optional. This serves to exclude a father who strikes his son, and a teacher who oppresses his student, and an agent of the court deputized to flog transgressors. If, in the course of performing the mitzva with which they are charged, they unintentionally murdered the son, the student, or the person being flogged, respectively, they are exempt.

הַזּוֹרֵק אֶבֶן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהָרַג, הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹלֶה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אִם מִכְּשֶׁיָּצְאתָה הָאֶבֶן מִיָּדוֹ הוֹצִיא הַלָּז אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ וְקִבְּלָהּ, הֲרֵי זֶה פָטוּר. זָרַק אֶת הָאֶבֶן לַחֲצֵרוֹ וְהָרַג, אִם יֵשׁ רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם, גּוֹלֶה. וְאִם לָאו, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא אֶת רֵעֵהוּ בַיַּעַר, מַה הַיַּעַר רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק וְלַמַּזִּיק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם, יָצָא חֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁאֵין רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק וְלַמַּזִּיק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, מַה חֲטָבַת עֵצִים רְשׁוּת, יָצָא הָאָב הַמַּכֶּה אֶת בְּנוֹ, וְהָרַב הָרוֹדֶה אֶת תַּלְמִידוֹ, וּשְׁלִיחַ בֵּית דִּין:


זרק את האבן לרשות הרבים – and even though it is close to acting with premeditation, for he should have thought that people would always be found in the public domain. Here we are dealing with a dunghill that was made in the public domain to be removed from there during the daytime and occasionally, it happens that he sits thee, and because of this, he is exiled, but it is not negligence nor is it totally unavoidably preventable (i.e., victim of an accident).

והוציא הלה את ראשו וקבלה פטור – As it is written (Deuteronomy 19:5): “[…the ax-head flies off the handle] and strikes the other [so that he dies. That man shall flee to one of these cities and live].”

אם יש רשות לניזק – if the owner gave him permission to enter

מה חטיבת עצים רשות – if he wants to go up to chop [wood], and if he does not want to, he does not go up.

יצא האב הרודה את בנו – for he is doing a Mitzvah

זרק את האבן לרשות הרבים. ואע״ג דקרוב למזיד הוא, שהיה לו לחשוב שבני אדם מצוים ברשות הרבים תמיד, הכא עסקינן באשפה העשויה ברשות הרבים להפנות בה בלילה, ואינה עשויה להפנות בה ביום וזמנין דמקרי דיתיב בה, ומשום הכי גולה, דלאו פושע הוא ולא אנוס גמור הוא:

והוציא הלה את ראשו וקבלה פטור. דכתיב (דברים י״ט:ה׳) ומצא את רעהו, פרט לממציא את עצמו:

אם יש רשות לניזק. שנתן לו בעל הבית רשות ליכנס:

מה חטיבת עצים רשות. דאי בעי עייל לחטוב ואי בעי לא עייל:

יצא האב הרודה את בנו. דמצוה קא עביד: