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Mishnayos Kiddushin Perek 4 Mishnah 14

קידושין פרק ד׳ משנה י"ד


Rabbi Yehuda says: A bachelor may not herd cattle, nor may two bachelors sleep with one covering, lest they transgress the prohibition against homosexual intercourse, but the Rabbis permit it. Anyone who has professional dealings primarily with women may not be secluded with women. There is more of a concern that such a man might sin due to his familiarity with the women. And a person may not teach his son a trade that necessitates frequent interaction with women, for the same reason. With regard to teaching one’s son a trade, Rabbi Meir says: A person should always teach his son a clean and easy trade and pray for success to the One to Whom wealth and property belong, as ultimately there is no trade that does not include both poverty and wealth, since a person can become rich from any profession. Poverty does not come from a particular trade, nor does wealth come from a particular trade, but rather, all is in accordance with a person’s merit. Therefore, one should choose a clean and easy trade, and pray to God for success. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Have you ever seen a beast or a bird that has a trade? And yet they earn their livelihood without anguish. But all these were created only to serve me, and I, a human being, was created to serve the One Who formed me. Is it not right that I should earn my livelihood without anguish? But I, i.e., humanity, have committed evil actions and have lost my livelihood. This is why people must work to earn a living. Abba Guryan of Tzadyan says in the name of Abba Gurya: A person may not teach his son the trades of a donkey driver, a camel driver, a pot maker, a sailor, a shepherd, or a storekeeper. The reason for all these is the same, as their trades are the trades of robbers; all of these professions involve a measure of dishonesty and are likely to lead to robbery. Rabbi Yehuda says in Abba Gurya’s name: Most donkey drivers are wicked, since they engage in deceit, and most camel drivers, who traverse dangerous places such as deserts, are of fit character, as they pray to God to protect them on their journeys. Most sailors are pious, since the great danger of the seas instills in them the fear of Heaven. The best of doctors is to Gehenna, and even the fittest of butchers is a partner of Amalek. Rabbi Nehorai says: I set aside all the trades in the world, and I teach my son only Torah, as a person partakes of its reward in this world and the principal reward remains for him in the World-to-Come, which is not true of other professions, whose rewards are only in this world. Furthermore, if a person comes to be ill, or old, or undergoes suffering, and is unable to be involved in his trade, behold, he dies in hunger. But with regard to the Torah it is not so, since one can study it under all circumstances. Rather, it preserves him from all evil and sin in his youth, and provides him with a future and hope in his old age. The mishna explains: With regard to his youth, what does it say about a Torah scholar? “But they that wait for the Lord shall renew their strength” (Isaiah 40:31). With regard to his old age, what does it say? “They shall still bring forth fruit in old age” (Psalms 92:15), and it likewise states with regard to Abraham our forefather: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age; and the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things” (Genesis 24:1). We found that Abraham our forefather fulfilled the entire Torah before it was given, as it is stated: “Because that Abraham listened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:5), which indicates that Abraham observed all the mitzvot of his own accord and was rewarded in his old age as a result.

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִרְעֶה רַוָּק בְּהֵמָה, וְלֹא יִישְׁנוּ שְׁנֵי רַוָּקִים בְּטַלִּית אֶחָת. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. כָּל שֶׁעִסְקוֹ עִם הַנָּשִׁים, לֹא יִתְיַחֵד עִם הַנָּשִׁים. וְלֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת נְקִיָּה וְקַלָּה, וְיִתְפַּלֵּל לְמִי שֶׁהָעשֶׁר וְהַנְּכָסִים שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עֲנִיּוּת וַעֲשִׁירוּת, שֶׁלֹּא עֲנִיּוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת וְלֹא עֲשִׁירוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת, אֶלָּא הַכֹּל לְפִי זְכוּתוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, רָאִיתָ מִיָּמֶיךָ חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אֻמָּנוּת, וְהֵן מִתְפַּרְנְסִין שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרְאוּ אֶלָּא לְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, וַאֲנִי נִבְרֵאתִי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת קוֹנִי, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁאֶתְפַּרְנֵס שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. אֶלָּא שֶׁהֲרֵעוֹתִי מַעֲשַׂי וְקִפַּחְתִּי אֶת פַּרְנָסָתִי. אַבָּא גֻרְיָן אִישׁ צַדְיָן אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם אַבָּא גֻרְיָא, לֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ, חַמָּר, גַּמָּל, סַפָּר, סַפָּן, רוֹעֶה, וְחֶנְוָנִי, שֶׁאֻמָּנוּתָן אֻמָּנוּת לִסְטִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ, הַחַמָּרִין, רֻבָּן רְשָׁעִים, וְהַגַּמָּלִין, רֻבָּן כְּשֵׁרִים. הַסַּפָּנִין, רֻבָּן חֲסִידִים. טוֹב שֶׁבָּרוֹפְאִים, לְגֵיהִנֹּם. וְהַכָּשֵׁר שֶׁבַּטַּבָּחִים, שֻׁתָּפוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק. רַבִּי נְהוֹרַאי אוֹמֵר, מַנִּיחַ אֲנִי כָּל אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם וְאֵינִי מְלַמֵּד אֶת בְּנִי אֶלָּא תוֹרָה, שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל מִשְּׂכָרָהּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְקֶרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וּשְׁאָר כָּל אֻמָּנוּת אֵינָן כֵּן. כְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא לִידֵי חֹלִי אוֹ לִידֵי זִקְנָה אוֹ לִידֵי יִסּוּרִין וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲסֹק בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא מֵת בְּרָעָב. אֲבָל הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ כֵּן, אֶלָּא מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ מִכָּל רָע בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ אַחֲרִית וְתִקְוָה בְזִקְנוּתוֹ. בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ, מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר, (ישעיה מ) וְקֹוֵי ה' יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ. בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ, מַהוּ אוֹמֵר, (תהלים צב) עוֹד יְנוּבוּן בְּשֵׂיבָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם, (בראשית כד) וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן, וַה' בֵּרַךְ אֶת אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל. מָצִינוּ שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, (שם כו) עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֹתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי:


וחכמים מתירין – And the Halakha is according to the Sages, for Israelites were not suspected of pederasty.

כל שאומנותו בין הנשים – for the work of his craft is done for woman, and the women need him.

לא יתיחד עם הנשים – and even with many women, because they become intimate with him, and are partial with him. But if there was another man with the two women, the Mishnah would teach that he shouldn’t, [but] three or four are even better. But Maimonides interprets that we don’t permit it, even because of the needs of his life to be intimate with woman, since his livelihood is from them.

חמר גמל וספן – all these are the trades of robbery, when they sleep on the roads, they go in and collect wood and fruit from the vineyards, and furthermore, they have the advantage over other people and violate their conditions.

רועה – [his cattle] for he removes the cattle to graze in the field of others.

חנוני – is trained/experienced in fraud, to urinate water in wine and place pebbles in wheat, for a person is obligated to teach his son a clean craft.

וחכמים מתירין. והלכה כחכמים. שלא נחשדו ישראל על הזכור:

כל שאומנתו בין הנשים. שמלאכת אומנתו נעשית לנשים, והנשים צריכות לו:

לא יתיחד עם הנשים. ואפילו עם הרבה נשים. לפי שלבן גס בו ומחפות עליו. ואילו אינש אחרינא עם שתי נשים תנן דלא, שלש וד׳ שפיר דמי. ורמב״ם פירש דלא שרינן אפילו משום כדי חייו להתיחד עם הנשים הואיל ופרנסתו מהן:

חמר גמל וספן. כל אלו אומנות לסטות, כשלנין בדרכים נכנסים ולוקטים עצים ופירות מן הכרמים. ועוד שנשכרים לבני אדם ומעבירין על תנאם:

רועה. [בהמות שלו] שמעביר הבהמות לרעות בשדה אחרים:

חנוני. מלומד באונאה, להטיל מים ביין, וצרורות בחיטין. שחייב אדם ללמד את בנו אומנות נקיה: