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Mishnayos Kiddushin Perek 4 Mishnah 1

קידושין פרק ד׳ משנה א׳


There were ten categories of lineage, with varying restrictions on marriage, among the Jews who ascended from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael with Ezra before the building of the Second Temple. They are as follows: Priests; Levites; Israelites; priests disqualified due to flawed lineage [ḥalalim]; converts, and emancipated slaves; mamzerim; Gibeonites, i.e., the descendants of the Gibeonites who converted in the time of Joshua; children of unknown paternity [shetuki]; and foundlings. The mishna proceeds to detail their halakhot: With regard to priests, Levites, and Israelites, it is permitted for men and women in these categories to marry one another. With regard to Levites who are not priests, Israelites, ḥalalim, converts, and emancipated slaves, it is permitted for men and women in these categories to marry one another. With regard to converts, and emancipated slaves, mamzerim, and Gibeonites, children of unknown paternity [shetuki], and foundlings, it is permitted for all of the men and women in these categories to marry one another.

עֲשָׂרָה יוֹחֲסִין עָלוּ מִבָּבֶל, כַּהֲנֵי, לְוִיֵּי, יִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, חֲלָלֵי, גֵּרֵי, וַחֲרוּרֵי, מַמְזֵרֵי, נְתִינֵי, שְׁתוּקֵי, וַאֲסוּפֵי. כַּהֲנֵי, לְוִיֵּי וְיִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. לְוִיֵּי, יִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, חֲלָלֵי, גֵּרֵי וַחֲרוּרֵי, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. גֵּרֵי וַחֲרוּרֵי, מַמְזֵרֵי וּנְתִינֵי שְׁתוּקֵי וַאֲסוּפֵי, כֻּלָּם מֻתָּרִין לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה:


עשרה יוחסין עלו מבבל – that Ezra set aside all of the ineligibles who were in Babylonia and they were brought up with him, in order that she shouldn’t be mixed with traced genealogies, because there was no Jewish court there.

חללי – Kohanim who were born from those who had been ineligible for the priesthood, such as a widow [married to] to a High Priest or a divorcee, the female issue of a Kohen’s illegitimate connection (or a Kohen’s wife illegitimately married to him), and/or a harlot to a common Kohen.

חרורי – freed slaves.

נתיני – Gibeonites who were circumcised in the days of Joshua, and were prohibited from marrying into the community [but would serve as water drawers and hewers of wood].

שתוקי ואסופי – we will explain them further on (Mishnah 2).

גיורי וחרורי ממזרין כו' כולם מותרים לבא זה בזה – for a community of converts is not considered a community, and Mamzerim are not warned about that they should not enter the community of converts, but Levites, and Israelites cannot [marry] with a Mamzer. And the illegitimate child of unknown fatherhood and the foundling, whose father and mother are unknown, are doubtful Mamzerim (i.e., illegitimate) and are permitted to be mixed with certain Mamzerim, for we say that into a clear congregation he may not enter, but into a doubtful congregation he may enter.

עשרה יוחסין עלו מבבל. שהפריש עזרא כל הפסולים שהיו בבבל והוליכן עמו, כדי שלא יתערבו עם המיוחסין, מאחר שאין שם ב״ד:

חללי. כהנים שנולדו מן הפסולות לכהונה, כגון אלמנה לכהן גדול, גרושה חללה זונה לכהן הדיוט:

חרורי. עבדים משוחררים:

נתיני. גבעונים שמלו בימי יהושע, ונאסרו לבא בקהל:

שתוקי ואסופי. מפרש להו ואזיל:

גיורי וחרורי ממזרין כו׳ כולם מותרין לבא זה בזה. דקהל גרים לא אקרי קהל, ולא הוזהרו ממזרים לבא בקהל גרים. אבל לויי וישראלי בממזרי לא. ושתוקי ואסופי ספק ממזרים הם ומותרין להתערב בממזר ודאי, דאמרינן בקהל ודאי הוא דלא יבא, הא בקהל ספק יבא: