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Mishnayos Kiddushin Perek 3 Mishnah 5

קידושין פרק ג׳ משנה ה׳


With regard to one who betroths a woman and later says: When I betrothed her I thought that she was the daughter of a priest, and it turned out that she is the daughter of a Levite, or if he claims that he thought she was the daughter of a Levite and she is actually the daughter of a priest, or if he claims that he thought she was poor and she is wealthy; or wealthy and she is poor, in all of these cases she is betrothed, because she did not mislead him, and no explicit condition was stated with regard to these matters. With regard to one who says to a woman: You are hereby betrothed to me after I convert, or: After you convert, or if he was a Canaanite slave and says: After I am emancipated, or if she was a Canaanite maidservant and he says: After you are emancipated, or if he says to a married woman: After your husband dies, or to his wife’s sister: After your sister dies, or if he says to a woman awaiting levirate marriage or ḥalitza from a brother-in-law [yavam], who in the opinion of this tanna cannot be betrothed by another man: After your yavam performs ḥalitza for you, in all these cases she is not betrothed. Since he cannot betroth her at the present time, his attempt at betrothal is ineffective. And similarly, with regard to one who says to another: If your wife gives birth to a female the child is hereby betrothed to me, even if she becomes pregnant, or is pregnant but her pregnancy is not known, if she gives birth to a girl, that child is not betrothed to him. But if he said this when the wife of the other man was pregnant and her fetus was discernible at the time, i.e., her pregnancy was known, his statement is upheld, and therefore if she gives birth to a girl, the child is betrothed to him.

הַמְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְאָמַר, כְּסָבוּר הָיִיתִי שֶׁהִיא כֹהֶנֶת וַהֲרֵי הִיא לְוִיָּה, לְוִיָּה וַהֲרֵי הִיא כֹהֶנֶת, עֲנִיָּה וַהֲרֵי הִיא עֲשִׁירָה, עֲשִׁירָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא עֲנִיָּה, הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הִטְעַתּוּ. הָאוֹמֵר לְאִשָּׁה, הֲרֵי אַתְּ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת לִי לְאַחַר שֶׁאֶתְגַּיֵּר אוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁתִּתְגַּיְּרִי, לְאַחַר שֶׁאֶשְׁתַּחְרֵר אוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁתִּשְׁתַּחְרְרִי, לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּמוּת בַּעֲלֵךְ אוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁתָּמוּת אֲחוֹתֵךְ, לְאַחַר שֶׁיַּחֲלֹץ לָךְ יְבָמֵךְ, אֵינָהּ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, אִם יָלְדָה אִשְׁתְּךָ נְקֵבָה הֲרֵי הִיא מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת לִי, אֵינָהּ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת. אִם הָיְתָה אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ מְעֻבֶּרֶת וְהֻכַּר עֻבָּרָהּ, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין, וְאִם יָלְדָה נְקֵבָה, מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת:


והוכר עוברה דבריו קיימין – Maimonides wrote [in his commentary to the Mishnah] that he may not come upon her until he betroth her a second time, for a person does not ever give possession of (i.e., sell) what does not yet exist, and they did not say that his words are fulfilled other than to be stringent upon her so that she cannot marry anyone else.

והוכר עוברה דבריו קיימין. כתב הרמב״ם דאין לו לבא עליה עד שיקדשנה קדושין שניים, שאין אדם מקנה דבר שלא בא לעולם. ולא אמרו דבריו קיימים אלא להחמיר עליה שאסורה לינשא לאחרים: