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Mishnayos Kiddushin Perek 1 Mishnah 5

קידושין פרק א׳ משנה ה׳


Property that serves as a guarantee, i.e., land or other items that are fixed in the earth, can be acquired by means of giving money, by means of giving a document, or by means of taking possession of it. Property that does not serve as a guarantee, i.e., movable property, can be acquired only by pulling. Property that does not serve as a guarantee can be acquired along with property that serves as a guarantee by means of giving money, by means of giving a document, or by means of taking possession of them. The movable property is transferred to the buyer’s possession when it is purchased together with the land, by means of an act of acquisition performed on the land. Generally, one is not obligated to take an oath concerning the denial of a claim with regard to land. The mishna continues: And in a legal dispute involving both land and movable property, if the defendant makes a partial admission of the claim with regard to the movable property, thereby rendering himself obligated to take an oath denying any responsibility for the remaining property, the movable property binds the property that serves as a guarantee, i.e., the land, so that he is forced to take an oath concerning the land as well, despite the fact that one is generally not obligated to take an oath for a claim involving land.

נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת נִקְנִין בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה. וְשֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, אֵין נִקְנִין אֶלָּא בִמְשִׁיכָה. נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, נִקְנִין עִם נְכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת, בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה. וְזוֹקְקִין נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת אֶת הַנְּכָסִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת לִשָּׁבַע עֲלֵיהֶן:


נכסים שיש להם אחריות – that is landed property, that the person who lends his fellow relies upon them that they are enduring and standing. And the explanation of the word אחריות/property which may be resorted to in case of non-payment is “return” – that the lender can return to them and forcibly seize the mortgaged property [that had been sold] if he would not find anything with borrower [upon his non-payment of the loan].

נקנין בכסף – as it is written (Jeremiah 32:44): “Fields shall be purchased [and deeds written and sealed...],” and these words [apply] in a place where it is not customary to write a document, but in a place where it is customary to write a document, he does not acquire it until he writes a document.

בשטר – that he writes on paper/parchment or on earthenware, that it is enough that is given to you or it is enough that is purchased by you, and he transfers it to the purchaser. And specifically, when it is a gift, land is purchased by a document. But in a sale, [it is not transferred] until he gives him the money, unless he sells his field because of its poor [quality], and in this, it is sold by a document alone. And from where do we learn that land is acquired by a document? It is written (Jeremiah 32:44): “[Fields shall be purchased,] and deeds written and sealed, [and witnesses called in the land of Benjamin and in the environs of Jerusalem, in the towns of Judah…].”

ובחזקה – such as that he dug a bit into the ground, or locked or fenced in or made a slight breach in the presence of the seller. But if it was not in his presence, he must say to him: “Go, take possession and acquire.” And from where do we learn that property is acquired by a claim based upon a presumption of undisturbed possession until evidence of a change is produced? As it is written (Deuteronomy 11:31): “…when you have occupied it and are settled in it.” How does one occupy it? Through settling it.

ושאין להם אחריות אין נקנין אלא במשיכה – As it is written (Leviticus 25:14): “[When you sell property to your neighbor,] or buy any from your neighbor, [you shall not wrong one another].” A thing which is possible to give him from hand to hand is not acquired other than by giving [it] from hand to hand.

נקנין עם נכסים כו' – If he sold movables with the land, since the purchaser bought the land in one of these three [forms] of acquisition, the movables are purchased with it, and he (i.e., the seller) should say to him: “acquire these subsidiary to the property, and we derive this from a Biblical verse, as it is written in Chronicles (II Chronicles 21:3): “Their father gave them many gifts of silver, gold and [other] presents, as well as fortified towns [in Judah…..].”

וזוקקין – these properties which cannot be resorted to (i.e., movable properties), with property from which debts may eventually be collected (i.e., landed property). And even though no oath is imposed on these properties, where they claimed movables and landed property and mandated an oath on the movables, the movables obligate an oath on the landed properties through an oath of implication (i.e., the rule permitting the court to insert in an oath an affirmation to which the person concerned could not have been compelled directly). And we learned the oath of implication from the woman suspected of having committed adultery, as it is written (Numbers 5:22): “And the woman shall say, ‘Amen, Amen,’” “Amen” from this man, “Amen” from another man,” “Amen” that she did not act foolishly while she was betrothed; “Amen” that she did not act foolishly while married, a widow waiting for the יבם/the dead husband’s brother to marry or reject her and the case of a woman conduced to one’s house to consummate the marriage.

נכסים שיש להם אחריות. היינו קרקעות, שהמלוה את חבירו סומך עליהם לפי שקיימים ועומדים. ופירוש אחריות. חזרה, שחוזר המלוה עליהם וטורף אותם מן הלקוחות כשלא ימצא כלום ללוה:

נקנין בכסף. דכתיב (ירמיהו ל״ב:מ״ד) שדות בכסף יקנו. והני מילי במקום שאין רגילין לכתוב שטר, אבל במקום שרגילין לכתוב שטר לא קנה עד שיכתוב שטר:

בשטר. שכותב על הנייר או על החרס שדי נתונה לך שדי קנויה לך ומוסרו לקונה. ודוקא במתנה נקנה הקרקע בשטר. אבל במכירה, עד שיתן את הכסף. אלא א״כ מוכר שדהו מפני רעתה, דבהא קנה בשטר לחודיה. ומנלן דמקרקעי נקנין בשטר, דכתיב (ירמיהו ל״ב:מ״ד) וכתוב בספר וחתום:

ובחזקה. כגון שחפר בקרקע מעט, או נעל, וגדר, ופרץ כל שהוא בפני המוכר. ואם היה שלא בפניו, צריך שיאמר לו לך חזק וקני. ומנא לן שקרקע נקנה בחזקה, דכתיב (דברים י״א:ל״א-ל״ב) וירשתם אותה וישבתם בה, במה ירשתם בישיבה:

ושאין להם אחריית אין נקנין אלא במשיכה. דכתיב (ויקרא כ״ה:י״ד) או קנה מיד עמיתך, דבר שאפשר לתתו מיד ליד אינו נקנה אלא בנתינה מיד ליד:

נקנין. עם נכסים כו׳. אם מכר מטלטלין עם הקרקע, כיון שקנה לוקח הקרקע באחת מג׳ קנינים הללו, נקנו מטלטלין עמה. והוא שיאמר, לו קנה [הני] אגב קרקע. ונפקא לן מקרא דכתיב בדברי דימים (ב׳ כ״א ג׳) ויתן להם אביהם מתנות רבות לכסף ולזהב ולמגדנות עם ערי מצורות:

וזוקקין. נכסים הללו שאין להם אחריות את הנכסים שיש להם אחריות כו׳. אע״ג דאין נשבעין על הקרקעות, היכא דטענו מטלטלין וקרקעות ונתחייב לישבע על המטלטלין, זוקקין המטלטלין את הקרקעות לישבע עליהם ע״י גלגול שבועה. ולמדנו גלגול שבועה מסוטה, דכתיב (במדבר ה׳:כ״ב) ואמרה האשה אמן אמן, אמן מאיש זה, אמן מאיש אחר. אמן שלא שטיתי ארוסה, אמן שלא שטיתי נשואה, שומרת יבם, וכנוסה: