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Mishnayos Kesuvos Perek 4 Mishnah 4

כתובות פרק ד׳ משנה ד׳


A father has authority over his daughter with regard to her betrothal through money, through a marriage document, or through intercourse. Likewise, a father is entitled to items she has found, and to her earnings, and to effect the nullification of her vows, i.e., a father may nullify his daughter’s vows. And he accepts her bill of divorce on her behalf if she is divorced from betrothal before she becomes a grown woman. And although he inherits her property when she dies, e.g., property she inherited from her mother’s family, he does not consume the produce of her property during her lifetime. If the daughter married, the husband has more rights and obligations than her father had before the marriage, as he consumes the produce of her property during her lifetime, and he is obligated to provide her sustenance, her redemption if she is captured, and her burial upon her death. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the poorest man of the Jewish people may not provide fewer than two flutes and a lamenting woman, which it was customary to hire for a funeral, as these too are included in the duties of burial.

הָאָב זַכַּאי בְבִתּוֹ בְקִדּוּשֶׁיהָ, בַּכֶּסֶף בַּשְּׁטָר וּבַבִּיאָה, וְזַכַּאי בִּמְצִיאָתָהּ, וּבְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ, וּבַהֲפָרַת נְדָרֶיהָ. וּמְקַבֵּל אֶת גִּטָּהּ, וְאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹת בְּחַיֶּיהָ. נִשֵּׂאת, יָתֵר עָלָיו הַבַּעַל שֶׁאוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹת בְּחַיֶּיהָ, וְחַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ, בְּפִרְקוֹנָהּ, וּבִקְבוּרָתָהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ עָנִי שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁנֵי חֲלִילִים וּמְקוֹנָנֶת:


האב זכאי בבתו – when she is a minor and when she is a young woman (i.e., from age twelve and one-day to twelve and one-half years of age).

בקידושיה בכסף – for the money of her betrothal is his (i.e., the father’s) as it is written concerning the Hebrew maidservant (Exodus 21:11): “she shall go free, without payment,” and we expound, that there is no money to this master, meaning to say to the master who purchased her that she left him gratuitously/for no reason with the signs of young womanhood, but if another master has money and the father appointed him, the money of her betrothal/sanctification is his, eve when she is a young woman until she becomes an adult woman.

בשטר ובביאה – that he receives the betrothal document on her behalf and hands her over for sexual intercourse for the sake of betrothal to whomever he desires, as it is written (Deuteronomy 24:2): “[she leaves his household] and becomes the wife of another man” (Tosafot Yom Tov omits the first part of the Biblical verse); there is an analogy of the word הויות/becomes – to each other just as “money” is one of the הויות/becomes – in the domain of her father, so also the “document” and “sexual intercourse” while she is in the domain of her father.

במציאתה – because of enmity/aversion.

ובמעשה ידיה – as it is written (Exodus 21:7): “When a man sells his daughter as a slave, [she shall not be feed as male slaves are].” Just as a maid servant, her handiwork belongs to her master, also the daughter, her handiwork belongs to her father.

ובהפרת נדריה – as it is written (Numbers 30:17): “[and his daughter] while in her father’s household by reason of her youth.”

ומקבל גיטה – as it is written (Deuteronomy 24;2) “she leaves [his household] and becomes [the wife of another man.” An analogy is made between [“leaving” to “becoming]; just as the father receives her betrothal while she is a minor and during her period as a young woman, so too he receives her bill of divorcement.

ואינו אוכל פירות בחייה – if land fell to her from the house of the father of her mother, her father cannot consume their fruits during her lifetime other than if she dies and he inherits her.

יתר עליו הבעל – for he takes possession of all of what is taught above that the father retains control, and he consumes the fruits of the property that fell to her in inheritance once she married him.

ובפרקונה – if she is taken captive, he is liable to redeem her.

בקבורתה – The Sages established her burial in place of her inheritance for he inherits her if she dies.

משני חלילים – for a eulogy.

האב זכאי בבתו. בקטנותה ובנערותה:

בקדושיה בכסף. שכסף קדושיה שלו, דכתיב באמה העבריה (שמות כ״א:י״א) ויצאה חנם אין כסף, ודרשינן, אין כסף לאדון זה, כלומר לאדון שקנאה שיצאה מאתו חנם בסימני נערות, אבל יש כסף לאדון אחר, ומנו אב, שכסף קדושיה שלו אפילו כשהיא נערה עד שתבגר:

בשטר ובביאה. שמקבל שטר קדושין עליה ומוסרה לביאה לשם קדושין למי שירצה, דכתיב והיתה, אתקוש הויות להדדי, מה כסף שהוא אחד מן ההויות, ברשות אביה, אך קדושי שטר וביאה ברשות אביה:

במציאתה. משום איבה:

ובמעשה ידיה. דכתיב (שמות כ״א:ז׳) וכי ימכור איש את בתו לאמה, מה אמה מעשה ידיה לרבה אף בת מעשה ידיה לאביה:

ובהפרת נדריה. דכתיב (במדבר ל) בנעוריה בית אביה:

ומקבל גיטה. דכתיב (דבדים כ״ד) ויצאה והיתה, איתקש יציאה להויה, כשם שהאב מקבל קדושיה בקטנותה ונערותה, כך מקבל גיטה:

ואינו אוכל פירות בחייה. אם נפלו לה קרקעות מבית אבי אמה, אין אביה אוכל פירותיהן בחייה, אא״כ מתה והוא יורשה:

יתר עליו הבעל. שהוא זוכה בכל השנויים למעלה שהאב וכאי בבתו, ואוכל פירות הנכסים שנפלו לה בירושה משנישאת לו:

ובפרקונה. אם נשבית חייב לפדותה:

בקבורתה. שחכמים תקנו קבורתה תחת ירושתה שהוא יורשה אם מתה:

משני חלילים. להספד: