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Mishnayos Kesuvos Perek 4 Mishnah 1

כתובות פרק ד׳ משנה א׳


In the case of a young woman who was seduced, the compensation for her humiliation and her degradation and her fine belong to her father. And the same applies to the compensation for pain in the case of a woman who was raped. If the young woman stood trial against the seducer or rapist before the father died, these payments belong to her father, as stated above. If the father died before he collected the money from the offender, the payments belong to her brothers. As the father’s heirs, they inherit the money to which he was entitled before he passed away. However, if she did not manage to stand in judgment before the father died, and she was subsequently awarded the money, the compensation belongs to her, as she is now under her own jurisdiction due to the fact that she no longer has a father. If she stood trial before she reached majority, the payments belong to her father, and if the father died, they belong to her brothers, who inherit the money notwithstanding the fact that she has become a grown woman since the trial. If she did not manage to stand in judgment before she reached majority, the money belongs to her. Rabbi Shimon says: Even if she stood trial in her father’s lifetime but did not manage to collect the payments before the father died, the brothers do not inherit this money, as it belongs to her. By contrast, with regard to her earnings and the lost items that she has found, although she has not collected them, e.g., she had yet to receive her wages, if the father died they belong to her brothers. These payments are considered the property of their father, as he was entitled to them before he passed away.

נַעֲרָה שֶׁנִּתְפַּתְּתָה, בָּשְׁתָּהּ וּפְגָמָהּ וּקְנָסָהּ שֶׁל אָבִיהָ, וְהַצַּעַר בַּתְּפוּסָה. עָמְדָה בַדִּין עַד שֶׁלֹּא מֵת הָאָב, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אָב. מֵת הָאָב, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אַחִין. לֹא הִסְפִּיקָה לַעֲמֹד בַּדִּין עַד שֶׁמֵּת הָאָב, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל עַצְמָהּ. עָמְדָה בַדִּין עַד שֶׁלֹּא בָגְרָה, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אָב. מֵת הָאָב, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אַחִין. לֹא הִסְפִּיקָה לַעֲמוֹד בַּדִּין עַד שֶׁבָּגְרָה, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל עַצְמָהּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אִם לֹא הִסְפִּיקָה לִגְבּוֹת עַד שֶׁמֵּת הָאָב, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל עַצְמָהּ. מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ וּמְצִיאָתָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא גָבְתָה, מֵת הָאָב, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אַחִין:


נערה: והצער בתפוסה – and the “pain” also goes to her father with someone who was raped.

מת האב – from when she stood in court during her being a young woman, whether she became an adult prior to [her father’s] death or whether she had not become a young man, they belong to the brothers, for since he stood before the court, the father took possession.

לא הספיק לעמוד בדין וכו' – since he did not stand before the court, it is not his money to bequeath to his sons.

רבי שמעון אומר – even though he stood in court, it is not the money of the father to bequeath to his sons until it reaches his hand, as it is written (Deuteronomy 22:29): The man who lay with her shall pay the girls father fifty [shekels of] silver.” The Torah did not cause the father to take possession until the time of the giving [of the money], but the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Shimon.

מעשה ידיה – that she did during the life of her father, even though she had no collected, [such as, for example], the salary/reward for work.

ומציאתה – In the Gemara (Tractate Ketubot 43a), it raises the question: “from whom is she to collect anything she finds?” And it responds as such: this is what he said: her handiwork is like anything she finds. Just as whatever she finds during the lifetime of her father belongs to her father, and after the death of her father is hers, meaning to say, that the brothers do not take possession of what the daughter has found after the death of the father, so too her handiwork [earned] during the lifetime of her father, belongs to the father and the brothers took possession of it [after their father’s death], even though she did not collect the earnings of her labor, but her handiwork that comes after the death of the father is hers, and the brothers do not have possession of the handiwork of the daughter who performs it after the death of the father.

נערה. והצער בתפוסה. והצער נמי לאביה באנוסה:

מת האב. משעמדה בדין בנערותה, בין בגרה קודם מיתה בין לא בגרה, הרי הן של אחין, דכיון דעמדה בדין זכה בהן אב:

לא הספיקה לעמוד בדין וכו׳ כיון דלא עמד בדין לאו ממון הוא להורישו לבניו:

רבי שמעון אומר. אע״פ שעמד בדין לא הוי ממון דאב להורישו לבניו עד דמטי לידיה, דכתיב (דברים כ, ב) ונתן האיש השוכב עמה לאבי הנערה חמשים כסף, לא זכתה תורה לאב אלא משעת נתינה. ואין הלכה כרבי שמעון:

מעשה ידיה. שעשתה בחיי אביה, אף על פי שלא גבתה, כגון שכר פעולה:

ומציאתה. בגמרא פריך, מציאתה ממאן גביא. ומשני, הכי קאמר, מעשה ידיה כמציאתה מה מציאתה בחיי האב לאב אחר מיתת האב לעצמה, כלומר שאין האחים זוכים במה שמצאה הבת לאחר מיתת האב, כך מעשה ידיה בחיי האב לאב, וזכו בהן האחים אך על פי שלא גבתה שכר פעולתה. אבל מעשה ידיה שלאחר מיתת האב לעצמה, ואין לאחין זכות במעשי ידי הבת שעושה לאחר מיתת האב: