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Mishnayos Kesuvos Perek 11 Mishnah 4

כתובות פרק י"א משנה ד׳


In the case of a widow whose marriage contract was worth two hundred dinars and she sold property that was worth one hundred dinars for two hundred dinars, or if she sold property worth two hundred dinars for one hundred dinars, she has received payment of her marriage contract and can demand nothing more. If her marriage contract was worth one hundred dinars and she sold property worth one hundred dinars and a dinar for one hundred dinars, the sale is void because she sold property that did not belong to her. Even if she says: I will return the additional dinar to the heirs, the sale is nevertheless void. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Actually, the sale is valid. It is not considered an invalid sale until there is an error so extreme that had there been no mistake, there would have remained in the field an area required for sowing nine kav of seed, the smallest area of land worth working. In that case, the orphans can reasonably claim that they are unwilling to give up on the land that belongs to them. However, if the error is less than this, it is enough if she returns the remainder to the orphans. And in the case of a garden, the sale is void if, had there been no error, there would have remained an area required for sowing a half-kav of seed, as this is the smallest size of garden worth working. Or, according to the statement of Rabbi Akiva, an area required for sowing a quarter-kav of seed. If her marriage contract was worth four hundred dinars, and she sold property to this one for one hundred dinars, and she sold property to that one for one hundred dinars, and again to a third one, and she sold property to the last one worth one hundred dinars and a dinar for only one hundred dinars, the sale of the last property is void, as the price she charged was below the market value. And all of the others, their sale is valid, as they were sold for the correct price.

אַלְמָנָה שֶׁהָיְתָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ מָאתַיִם וּמָכְרָה שָׁוֶה מָנֶה בְמָאתַיִם אוֹ שָׁוֶה מָאתַיִם בְּמָנֶה, נִתְקַבְּלָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ. הָיְתָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ מָנֶה וּמָכְרָה שָׁוֶה מָנֶה וְדִינָר בְּמָנֶה, מִכְרָהּ בָּטֵל. אֲפִלּוּ הִיא אוֹמֶרֶת אַחֲזִיר אֶת הַדִּינָר לַיּוֹרְשִׁין, מִכְרָהּ בָּטֵל. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם מִכְרָהּ קַיָּם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא שָׁם כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּשַׁיֵּר בְּשָׂדֶה בַּת תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּים, וּבְגִנָּה בַּת חֲצִי קַב, וּכְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בֵּית רֹבַע. הָיְתָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז, וּמָכְרָה לָזֶה בְמָנֶה וְלָזֶה בְמָנֶה וְלָאַחֲרוֹן יָפֶה מָנֶה וְדִינָר בְּמָנֶה, שֶׁל אַחֲרוֹן בָּטֵל וְשֶׁל כֻּלָּן מִכְרָן קַיָּם:


שוה מאתים במנה נתקבלה כתובתה – for we tell her “you have suffered loss/ruin and that which is worth a Maneh [that was sold] for two hundred, even though it gained in value, one cannot say: “I will make a profit for a person who sends his agent to the market to do business and he purchased it cheaply, everything goes to the owner of the money and we don’t hear from here other than regarding a thing that has no limit such as the case of land whose manner is for it to be sold through mere sight/estimate – this one for less and that one for more, but a thing that has a limit and the agent purchased it for less, the law is not made clear to us from this and becomes fit for something remarkable for they argued about it and the conclusion is according to [what] appears to us that the agent and the person sending the agent are arguing about.

מכרה בטל – that same Denar, she does not have permission to sell, it is found that the entire sale is in error, for it took place at one time.

לעולם מכרה קיים – and she should return the Denar to the inheritors for what loss did she cause them? Until it would be a fraudulent representation in order that if it were no overreaching, the field would remain worth nine Kabim which is the measure of the field,

and in the garden within one-half of Kab which is the measure of a garden. But the Halakha is not according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel.

שוה מאתים במנה נתקבלה כתובתה. דאמרינן לה את אפסדת. ושוה מנה במאתים אף על גב דהיא הרויחה לא מצית למימר אנא ארווחי, שהשולח שלוחו לשוק לסחורה ולקח בזול הכל לבעל המעות. ולא שמעינן מהכא אלא בדבר שאין לו קצבה כגון קרקע שדרכו להמכר באומד זה בפחות וזה ביתר, אבל דבר שיש לו קצבה וקנה השליח בפחות לא איתברירא לן דינא מהכא. וחזינא לרבוותא דאפליגו בה. ומסקנא לפום מאי דחזי לן, שחולקין השליח והמשלח:

מכרה בטל. שאותו דינר אין לה רשות למכור, נמצא שכל המכר טעות, שהרי בבת אחת היה:

לעולם מכרה קיים. והיא תחזיר את הדינר ליורשין, דמה הפסידתן. עד שיהא באונאה כדי שאילו לא היתה האונאה היה משתייר שדה בת תשעה קבין, שהוא שיעור שדה:

ובגינה בת חצי קב. שהוא שיעור גינה. ואין הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל: